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Zhang, Wennan
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Publications (10 of 62) Show all publications
Tang, Y.-x., Luo, Z.-y., Yu, C.-j., Cen, J.-m., Chen, Q.-y. & Zhang, W. (2019). Determination of biomass-coal blending ratio by C-14 measurement in co-firing flue gas. Journal Of Zhejiang University-Science A, 20(7), 475-486
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of biomass-coal blending ratio by C-14 measurement in co-firing flue gas
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2019 (English)In: Journal Of Zhejiang University-Science A, ISSN 1673-565X, Vol. 20, no 7, p. 475-486Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To verify the feasibility of using radiocarbon detection for the measurement of the biomass-coal blending ratio in co-firing heat and power plants, C-14 activity detection technology that uses benzene synthesis as the sample preparation method and a liquid scintillation counter as the detection instrument was studied. A benzene synthesis system was built to enrich carbon in the combustion flue gas in the form of benzene. The benzene sample was mixed with scintillator (butyl-PBD) and C-14 activity was measured using a liquid scintillation counter (Quantulus 1220). Three kinds of coal and six kinds of biomass were tested repeatedly. The measured C-14 activity was 0.3365 DPM/gC in Zhundong lignite, 0.2701 DPM/gC in Shenmu bitumite, and 0.3060 DPM/gC in Changzhi anthracite. These values were much higher than the instrument background activity. For the co-fired experiment, we used groups with biomass ratios (based on the carbon) of 6.51%, 12.95%, and 20.75%. A modified empirical expression to determine the biomass, coal blending ratio based on the C-14 activity measured in the co-firing flue gas, was proposed by analyzing and verifying measurement accuracy. From the C-14 measurements of the co-fired samples, the corresponding estimated biomass ratios were (5.540.48)%, (12.310.67)%, and (19.490.90)%. The absolute measurement error was around 1% for a typical biomass-coal co-firing application.

Keywords
Biomass co-firing, Blending ratio determination, Radiocarbon, Benzene synthesis
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36819 (URN)10.1631/jzus.A1900006 (DOI)000475642100001 ()2-s2.0-85068752506 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-08-12 Created: 2019-08-12 Last updated: 2019-08-12Bibliographically approved
Liu, H., Chen, Y., Yang, H., Gentili, F. G., Söderlind, U., Wang, X., . . . Chen, H. (2019). Hydrothermal carbonization of natural microalgae containing a high ash content. Paper presented at 6th International Conference on Biomass Energy (ICBE), Wuhan, PEOPLES R CHINA, OCT 16-19, 2018. Fuel, 249, 441-448
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrothermal carbonization of natural microalgae containing a high ash content
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2019 (English)In: Fuel, ISSN 0016-2361, E-ISSN 1873-7153, Vol. 249, p. 441-448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The potential to convert natural microalgae (Scenedesmus) into solid fuels by hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) was evaluated. The deashing microalgae (DA) were obtained by acid-washing natural microalgae (NM) with HCl. The deashing efficiency was high from 44.66% for NM to 14.45% for DA. HTC carried out at temperature in the range from 180 to 260 degrees C with this two types feedstock (i.e. NM and DA). The results showed that DA-derived hydrochars had good physicochemical and fuel properties compared with that of NM-derived hydrochars. HTC process of DA was mainly based on polymerization, and the hydrolysis process was short. The hydrochars obtained from DA at 220 degrees C (HC-D220) had the highest value of 51.86% with a carbon content and fixed carbon content 1.15 and 1.33 times, respectively, greater than that of DA. The high heating value (HHV) of HC-D220 reached 26.64 MJ/kg which is equivalent to medium-high calorific coal. The thermogravimetric analysis (TG) demonstrated that the hydrochars derived from DA have good combustion properties with stable at high temperature zones. They can easily mix with coal or replace coal in combustion application. The results of this study revealed that natural microalgae can be utilized by hydrothermal carbonization to generate renewable fuel resources.

Keywords
Hydrothermal carbonization, Natural microalgae, Ash, Energy recovery, Solid fuel
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36191 (URN)10.1016/j.fuel.2019.03.004 (DOI)000465255500044 ()2-s2.0-85063497017 (Scopus ID)
Conference
6th International Conference on Biomass Energy (ICBE), Wuhan, PEOPLES R CHINA, OCT 16-19, 2018
Available from: 2019-05-22 Created: 2019-05-22 Last updated: 2019-05-24Bibliographically approved
Zhu, Y., Fan, J., Yang, P., Cheng, W., Zeng, K., Zhang, W., . . . Chen, H. (2019). P-Based Additive for Reducing Fine Particulate Matter Emissions during Agricultural Biomass Combustion. Energy & Fuels, 33(11), 11274-11284
Open this publication in new window or tab >>P-Based Additive for Reducing Fine Particulate Matter Emissions during Agricultural Biomass Combustion
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2019 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 33, no 11, p. 11274-11284Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

To understand the influence of P-containing compounds on particulate matter (PM) emissions from the combustion of agricultural residues, the combustion of cornstalk was performed with the addition of a phosphorus-based additive, namely, ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (NH4H2PO4), in a fixed-bed combustion system. Simultaneously the ash samples, including PM collected by a Dekati low-pressure impactor (DLPI) and residual ash, were analyzed with variant analytical techniques. It was found that NH4H2PO4 addition significantly reduced PM0.1 and PM0.1-1 yields but increased PM1-10 yields. The maximum PM0.1 and PM1 reduction efficiency can reach up to 50% at an optimal P/K molar ratio equal to 1. Meanwhile, the addition of NH4H2PO4 to cornstalk changed the chemical composition of PM1 from being dominated by KCl and KOH/K2CO3 with a small amount of K2SO4 to a system dominated by KPO3 and KCl with a small amount of K2SO4. Simultaneously, the possible PM1 reduction mechanism was proposed. In addition, the residual ash after combustion was rich in K- and P-containing species, indicating a potential utilization as a fertilizer. It showed that the addition of NH4H2PO4 is a promising approach to reduce PM1 emissions during the combustion of agricultural biomass. 

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38186 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.9b02967 (DOI)000499741900085 ()2-s2.0-85075176818 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Liu, H., Qu, L., Chen, Y., Zhang, W., Yang, H., Wang, X. & Chen, H. (2019). Physicochemical characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of hydrothermal carbon from natural Scenedesmus. Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 35(14), 235-242
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Physicochemical characteristics and pyrolysis kinetics of hydrothermal carbon from natural Scenedesmus
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2019 (English)In: Nongye Gongcheng Xuebao/Transactions of the Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, ISSN 1002-6819, Vol. 35, no 14, p. 235-242Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In order to explore the utilization of natural microalgae, the natural Scenedesmus was selected to carry out hydrothermal carbonization experiments, and the characterization of its hydrochars was determined using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction analysis, X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy, environmental scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analyzer. The results showed that the ash content of natural Scenedesmus was 44.66%, and the lipid and protein content of natural Scenedesmus were 1.4% and 15.1%, respectively. The natural microalgae ash components were mostly water-insoluble components. The main components included (Mg0.064Ca0.936CO3), SiO2, NaCl, Al2O3, CaSO4, Mg3S2O8(OH)2. After hydrothermal carbonization treatment, NaCl was dissolved in water, and the water-insoluble components were enriched in hydrochars. Compared with the natural Scenedesmus, the ash content of hydrochars increased, in the range from 57.41% to 71.47%. It was worth noting that the natural Scenedesmus and its derived hydrochars had no fixed carbon. With the increase of hydrothermal temperature, the hydrothermal carbon yield decreased from 47.29% (180℃) to 43.01% (240℃). This phenomenon was on account of the organic components in the natural Scenedesmus underwent hydrolysis, dehydration, decarboxylation, aromatization, condensation and polymerization. The carbon remaining ratio was the largest, the oxygen was the smallest, and the remaining ratios of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen decreased as the hydrothermal temperature increased. For HC-240, the removal rates of H and O were 69.88% and 93.88%, respectively, and the C remaining ration rate was 33.97%. The O/C molar ratio of hydrochars decreased from 1.45 to 0.28. Dehydration and decarboxylation were the main pathways in hydrothermal carbonization of the natural Scenedesmus, and the demethylation pathway was negligible. Oxygen was removed in the form of H2O and CO2. The degree of carbonization was enhanced and hydrochars had the potential to be applied to solid fuels. Since hydrochars contained a large amount of ash, its calorific value was in the range of 8.43-9.67 MJ/kg. Hence, the pretreatment of deashing was a necessary process. The hydrothermal carbonization treatment effectively improved the pore structure of hydrochars, and the absorption-desorption capacity of hydrochars was obviously enhanced. Compared with natural Scenedesmus (4.36 m2/g), the specific surface area of hydrochars was in the range of 28.7-35.26 m2/g. The natural Scenedesmus had a dense block-like without pores or pathways. However, the morphologies of hydrochars changed significantly. The fragmentation and porosity of hydrochars increased, which attributed to the release of volatile matter during hydrothermal carbonization process and chemical bond decomposition of feedstock. The thermogravimetric analysis experiments were carried out to reveal the pyrolysis characteristics of hydrochars. It was found that the weight loss peak at 300℃ gradually disappeared with the increased of hydrothermal temperature. This was owing to the degree of natural Scenedesmus increased and the volatile matter content decreased. When the hydrothermal temperature was higher than 220℃, the maximum weight loss rate peak moved to the high temperature zone. The pyrolysis kinetics results showed that the thermal stability of hydrochars increased with the increase of hydrothermal temperature. The hydrochars were more hydrophobic than that of the natural Scenedesmus. The research results provide a theoretical reference for the resource utilization of natural microalgae.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Chinese Society of Agricultural Engineering, 2019
Keywords
Carbonization, Hydrochar, Kinetics, Natural Scenedesmus, Physicochemical characteristics, Pyrolysis
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38185 (URN)10.11975/j.issn.1002-6819.2019.14.030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075112751 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-08 Created: 2020-01-08 Last updated: 2020-01-08Bibliographically approved
Zhu, Y., Hu, J., Yang, W., Zhang, W., Zeng, K., Yang, H., . . . Chen, H. (2018). Ash Fusion Characteristics and Transformation Behaviors during Bamboo Combustion in Comparison with Straw and Poplar. Energy & Fuels, 32(4), 5244-5251
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Ash Fusion Characteristics and Transformation Behaviors during Bamboo Combustion in Comparison with Straw and Poplar
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2018 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 4, p. 5244-5251Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the bamboo ash fusion and sintering characteristics were studied to evaluate its potential application in combustion for the production of heat and power. Poplar and wheat straw were used in the experimental test as the reference fuels for comparison. Standard ash fusion tests and ash sintering tests were carried out at elevated temperatures. The results indicate that bamboo has a low ash melting temperature of 862 °C, much lower than that of poplar. In spite of the high K content in bamboo ash, no severe melting and sintering was observed under the temperature lower than 1000 °C. The ashes after the tests were analyzed using SEM/EDX, XRF, and XRD techniques to illustrate the ash transformation behavior. Standard ash fusion tests indicated that the melting temperatures of bamboo, wheat straw, and poplar ashes are 862 °C, 770 °C, and 1088 °C, respectively. No severe sintering can be observed for poplar due to the large existence of refractory compounds. Ash sintering occurred when the temperature is higher than 800 °C, for wheat straw, due to the formation of the low melting temperature K-rich silicate. Additionally, bamboo ash has a relatively high P content compared to that of wheat straw, which facilitates the formation of high melting temperature compounds of K-Ca/Mg phosphates. Moreover, the ash content in bamboo is low. As a conclusion, bamboo is a good quality biofuel which can be fired in biomass combustion plants without severe sintering at a temperature lower than 1000 °C. 

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33663 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b00371 (DOI)000430783300122 ()2-s2.0-85045847953 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-05-23 Created: 2018-05-23 Last updated: 2018-05-30Bibliographically approved
Göransson, K., Söderlind, U. & Zhang, W. (2018). Biogas production from biological methanation of syngas. In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings: . Paper presented at 26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition -EUBCE 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-18 May 2018 (pp. 512-515). ETA-Florence Renewable Energies (26thEUBCE)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Biogas production from biological methanation of syngas
2018 (English)In: European Biomass Conference and Exhibition Proceedings, ETA-Florence Renewable Energies , 2018, no 26thEUBCE, p. 512-515Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Biogas to be used as gas vehicle fuel is a highly potential source to meet transport fuel demand and give a significant contribution to the Swedish target: vehicle fleet independent of fossil fuels by 2030. At present the biogas market is limited by the amount of available organic waste and the associated infrastructure. To overcome these issues, biomass could either be gasified into syngas and synthesized into bio-SNG (Synthetic Natural Gas) through catalytic methanation, or biomass gasification could be integrated into the biogas system to produce methane through biological methanation. Biomass gasification integrated in biological methanation is a relatively new idea and technology. Syngas conversion to methane by anaerobic cultures is practically unexplored, and few reports are available on this subject. Nevertheless, the pathway has been receiving intensive attractions and R&D recent years. For this purpose, a novel pathway by integrating biomass gasification into biogas system is studied in detail. This paper reviews the whole process from integration of biomass gasification into the biogas system to methane production through biological methanation: Biomass gasification > H2+CO > Biogas digester > Upgrading > Natural gas network. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
ETA-Florence Renewable Energies, 2018
Keywords
Allothermal Gasification, Anaerobic Digestion, Synthetic Natural Gas (SNG), Thermochemical Conversion, Transport Sector
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34568 (URN)2-s2.0-85051038909 (Scopus ID)
Conference
26th European Biomass Conference and Exhibition -EUBCE 2018, Copenhagen, Denmark, 14-18 May 2018
Available from: 2018-10-01 Created: 2018-10-01 Last updated: 2018-10-01Bibliographically approved
Zhu, Y., Si, Y., Wang, X., Zhang, W., Shao, J., Yang, H. & Chen, H. (2018). Characterization of Hydrochar Pellets from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Agricultural Residues. Energy & Fuels, 32(11), 11538-11546
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Characterization of Hydrochar Pellets from Hydrothermal Carbonization of Agricultural Residues
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2018 (English)In: Energy & Fuels, ISSN 0887-0624, E-ISSN 1520-5029, Vol. 32, no 11, p. 11538-11546Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this work, the effects of operating conditions of hydrothermal carbonization on the hydrochar pelletization and combustion characteristics were investigated. Corn stalk was carbonized under different conditions and then pelletized to obtain the hydrochar pellets. It was found that hydrothermal temperature and residence time greatly affect the pellet quality. When the temperature was raised up to 240 °C with the residence time longer than 60 min, the heating values of hydrochar were close to or even higher than those of lignite. After hydrothermal treatment, 73.71-94.71% K and 91.81-94.32% Cl contained in the feedstock were removed, indicating a low fouling and slagging tendency when the pellets are used in combustion. The compressive strength and durability increased first with increasing temperature and then decreased with further increasing the temperature from 240 to 300 °C. The influence of residence time showed a similar trend, and the compressive strength and durability reached its maximum value at the temperature of 240 °C and residence time of 60 min. The hydrophobicity of the hydrochar pellets increased with increasing the temperature and residence time. Hydrochar pellets obtained at the temperature of 240 °C with residence time of 60 min gives the best performance, which can meet the requirement of industrial fuel pellets. Finally, the combustion characteristics were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis, and the results indicated that hydrochar pellets were combusted in a comparatively mild way with a high thermal efficiency. As a general conclusion, the hydrochar pellets have much better qualities than the raw corn stalk, facilitating the transportation, long-term storage, and combustion application. 

National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35134 (URN)10.1021/acs.energyfuels.8b02484 (DOI)000451101300046 ()2-s2.0-85056097060 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2019-03-15Bibliographically approved
Zhu, Y., Yang, W., Fan, J., Kan, T., Zhang, W., Liu, H., . . . Chen, H. (2018). Effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose addition on particulate matter emissions during biomass pellet combustion. Applied Energy, 230, 925-934
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effect of sodium carboxymethyl cellulose addition on particulate matter emissions during biomass pellet combustion
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2018 (English)In: Applied Energy, ISSN 0306-2619, E-ISSN 1872-9118, Vol. 230, p. 925-934Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) can be used as a cost-effective and environmentally friendly binder in the pelletizing process for production of biomass pellets with good quality. However, the effect of its addition on the emission of particulate matters (PM) during the combustion process, are still not clear. In this study, four typical biomass fuels, cotton stalk, cornstalk, camphorwood and rice husk, were used to investigate the effect of the addition of 5 wt% CMC in the biomass pellets on PM emissions during the combustion process. In the case of pure CMC combustion, a large amount of PM mainly with PM2.5 were generated, which was associated to the evaporation and condensation of NaOH and Na2CO3. The PM10 emission from the combustion of the four biomass fuels varied from 9.72 mg/Nm3 to 23.12 mg/Nm3 with mainly PM1. The addition of 5 wt% CMC in cotton stalk, corn stalk and camphorwood significantly increased the PM emissions due to the evaporation and subsequent condensation of Na-containing species, e.g. NaCl, Na2SO4, NaOH and Na2CO3. For rice husk, the addition of CMC hardly affected PM1 emission due to the dominated SiO2 component in rice husk ash, which reacted with the Na-containing species from the combustion of CMC and facilitated the formation of coarse ash particles and the reduction of PM1 emission. Although the addition of CMC in biomass fuels can greatly enhance the pellets qualities, its addition increases the PM emissions to varying degree. Therefore, in the industrial application of CMC to biomass densification, countermeasures such as mixing of high Si-containing rice husk or SiO2-rich minerals with biomass fuels should be taken to alleviate the PM issues resulting from the introduction of CMC. 

Keywords
Biomass combustion, Particulate matters, Pellet, Silicon, Sodium carboxymethyl cellulose
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34602 (URN)10.1016/j.apenergy.2018.09.013 (DOI)000448226600069 ()2-s2.0-85052963673 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-10-03 Created: 2018-10-03 Last updated: 2018-11-19Bibliographically approved
Yang, H., Wang, D., Li, B., Zeng, Z., Qu, L., Zhang, W. & Chen, H. (2018). Effects of potassium salts loading on calcium oxide on the hydrogen production from pyrolysis-gasification of biomass. Bioresource Technology, 249, 744-750
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Effects of potassium salts loading on calcium oxide on the hydrogen production from pyrolysis-gasification of biomass
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2018 (English)In: Bioresource Technology, ISSN 0960-8524, E-ISSN 1873-2976, Vol. 249, p. 744-750Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The effects of potassium (K) salts loading on CaO on the H2 production from pyrolysis-gasification of wheat straw were investigated. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl could significantly enhance the CO2 absorption capability of CaO. The CO2 concentration in the product gas decreased sharply from 20.83 to 11.70 vol%, and the H2 concentration increased from 48.2 to 55.5 vol%. While the loading of 0.25 wt% K2CO3/K2SO4 inhibited the enhancing effect of CaO. Further increasing the loading of KCl on CaO, the CO2 absorption of CaO declined, but the catalytic effect of KCl on the gasification process was promoted. The loading of 0.25 wt% KCl on CaO significantly improved the cyclic performance of CaO during the pyrolysis-gasification process. Higher H2 concentration and more CO2 absorbed by CaO were obtained with the loading of 0.25 wt% KCl even after 5 cycles compared with those of pure CaO in the first cycle. 

Keywords
Biomass pyrolysis-gasification, Calcium oxide, CO2 absorption, Hydrogen production, Potassium salts
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32283 (URN)10.1016/j.biortech.2017.10.083 (DOI)000425764100098 ()29100189 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85032472534 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-12-06 Created: 2017-12-06 Last updated: 2018-03-19Bibliographically approved
Chen, X., Yang, H., Chen, Y., Chen, W., Lei, T., Zhang, W. & Chen, H. (2017). Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce furfural using heterogeneous catalysts. Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, 127, 292-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Catalytic fast pyrolysis of biomass to produce furfural using heterogeneous catalysts
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2017 (English)In: Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, ISSN 0165-2370, E-ISSN 1873-250X, Vol. 127, p. 292-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Furfural is a valuable chemical, the production of furfural from renewable biomass resources becomes more attractive in recent years. In this study, biomass fast pyrolysis with heterogeneous catalysts (titanium compounds (TiN, TiO2 and TiOSO4) and metal nitrides (MoN, GaN and VN)) for furfural production was investigated experimentally by means of pyrolysis-gas chromatography/mass-spectrometry (Py-GC/MS). The measurement results indicated that TiN and GaN promoted the furfural compounds production notably mainly through direct decomposition of oligosaccharides. The formation of furfural was promoted when the amount of TiN was increased, and the yield of furfural formed was about 5.5 times the size of that from non-catalytic pyrolysis when TiN/cellulose mass ratio was 4. The furfural yield decreased when the pyrolysis residence time increased from 10 to 30 s, which suggests competitive reactions (formation of 1, 6-anhydro-beta.-D-glucopyranose) against the formation of furfural. TiN, as a catalyst for fast pyrolysis towards furfural production, can be well applied to agriculture biomass residues. Comparing three biomass residues: corncob, wheat straw and cotton stalk, corncob showed higher furfural yield due to the higher holocellulose content, while wheat straw showed higher furfural selectivity. 

Keywords
Biomass, Catalytic pyrolysis, Furfural, Heterogeneous catalysts, Py-GC/MS
National Category
Chemical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32188 (URN)10.1016/j.jaap.2017.07.022 (DOI)000413284000034 ()2-s2.0-85026853100 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2017-11-29 Created: 2017-11-29 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
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