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Schmudde, U. & Sörensson, A. (2020). Tourism Development in Rural Areas in Sweden – In the Shadow of a Well-Established Destination. Athens Journal of Tourism, 7(1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism Development in Rural Areas in Sweden – In the Shadow of a Well-Established Destination
2020 (English)In: Athens Journal of Tourism, E-ISSN 2241-8148, Vol. 7, no 1Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Tourism development has been studied by researchers for decades, yet the issue of destinations that are situated in the shadow of well-established destinations has not yet been addressed in any depth. This article defines these as destinations that exist in the shadow of a well-established place to visit with a strong identity and well-known brand. Well-established destinations with high profile branding attract many tourists. Destinations in their shadow, on the other hand, struggle with tourism and destination development. The aim of this paper is to better understand these types of destinations. The study is a multiple case study examining two shadow destinations located in rural settings in Sweden. Data were collected from semi-structured interviews with representatives from the destinations’ municipality, local destination development organisations, tourism companies, and infrastructure companies. Data were also collected from observations and written materials. The results show that shadow destinations could add value to tourists visiting well-established places to visit by offering attractions that benefit tourists. They also show the importance of destinations networking with each other and the usefulness of well-known brands in their communication with tourists. In addition, shadow destinations can help well-known places become more sustainable by reducing the pressure of unsustainable high numbers of tourists visiting them. Finally, shadow destinations could give tourists the option of choosing other tourist routes in a region, allowing them to experience attractions such as gastronomy routes, for example, in shadow destinations.

Keywords
Brand, Nature Based Tourism, Rural Destination, Shadow Destination, Tourism Development, Tourist Route, Travel Reason
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37806 (URN)10.30958/ajt.X-Y-Z (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-27 Created: 2019-11-27 Last updated: 2019-11-28
Sörensson, A. & Schmudde, U. (2019). Developing a Tourism Destination in the Shadow of a World Heritage National Park. In: : . Paper presented at Tourism Naturally Conference, 4th-6th June, 2019, Buxton, UK.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing a Tourism Destination in the Shadow of a World Heritage National Park
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36254 (URN)
Conference
Tourism Naturally Conference, 4th-6th June, 2019, Buxton, UK
Available from: 2019-06-06 Created: 2019-06-06 Last updated: 2019-06-10Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A., Bogren, M. & Schmudde, U. (2019). How do Cities of Different Sizes in Europe Work with Sustainable Development?. In: : . Paper presented at Sustainable City 2019, Valencia, Spain, 1–3 October 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do Cities of Different Sizes in Europe Work with Sustainable Development?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37596 (URN)
Conference
Sustainable City 2019, Valencia, Spain, 1–3 October 2019
Available from: 2019-10-30 Created: 2019-10-30 Last updated: 2019-10-31Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A., Bogren, M. & Schmudde, U. (2019). How do Cities of Different Sizes in Europe Work with Sustainable Development?. International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, 14(4), 287-298
Open this publication in new window or tab >>How do Cities of Different Sizes in Europe Work with Sustainable Development?
2019 (English)In: International Journal of Design & Nature and Ecodynamics, ISSN 1755-7437, E-ISSN 1755-7445, Vol. 14, no 4, p. 287-298Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Today, competition between cities to attract inhabitants, companies and tourists is strong and cities must be up-to-date in terms of development to succeed. One way for smaller destinations to achieve sustainable development is by being creative with respect to tourism. Some destinations are in the shadow of others and need to stand out in some way. The purpose of this paper is to study European cities of different sizes and their work on sustainable development. The following research questions are addressed: How do different cities work on sustainable development? How does the size of the city influence its work on sustainability? How can a city be influenced by surrounding areas in its sustainability work? The study uses a qualitative method. Data were collected from 34 small cities, towns and villages in Europe. The destinations were selected using non-probability sampling. The data were analysed using an interpretative approach. The results show that the local community plays a key role in contributing to the sustainable development of small destinations. It is also of great importance for a place to have an identity and to reach different types of stakeholders. The conclusion is that local communities must be engaged in the sustainable development of smaller destinations. It is also important to focus on the environment since today’s tourists are more aware of environmental sustainability. Several of the cities can be seen as shadow destinations since they are included in larger regions and are dependent on other destinations that are more famous. Finally, successful rural destinations offer value to the tourist, have a strong identity and include stakeholders in the development process.

Keywords
creativity, identity, rural, small city, sustainable, sustainable development
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37777 (URN)10.2495/DNE-V14-N4-287–298 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-11-25 Created: 2019-11-25 Last updated: 2019-11-27Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A., Bogren, M. & Cawthorn, A. (2019). Lifestyle Entrepreneurs within Nature-Based Businesses in Sweden. In: : . Paper presented at Atiner 15th Annual International Conference on Tourism, 10-13 June 2019, Athens, Greece.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Lifestyle Entrepreneurs within Nature-Based Businesses in Sweden
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A growing number of research studies focuses on lifestyle entrepreneurs in the tourism industry. Lifestyle entrepreneurs often start their business due to the fact that they want to make business of their hobby or they want to create a certain quality of life by living in a specific place. Previous studies argue that lifestyle entrepreneurs are often motivated by non-economic goals. Nature based businesses includes traditional businesses like agriculture and forestry but also new emerging businesses that are based on nature‟s resources like tourism. In rural areas, these type of tourism business are the most important incomes and therefore also of high importance concerning business development. The aim is to explore the tourism entrepreneurs‟ point of view of their lifestyle and business within nature based businesses in rural areas. The study was conducted with a qualitative approach. 17 different cases was studied from autumn 2015 until autumn 2016. The cases consisted of micro tourism companies within nature based businesses situated in the rural county of Jämtland in Sweden. The data was collected through semistructured interviews, observations and written materials. The result from this study show that there is several difference between tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs in rural areas with nature based businesses. We have identified four types of tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs that have different motives for running their businesses. The results also show that depending on what kind of tourism entrepreneur they focus differently on their nature based businesses. Many of the lifestyle entrepreneurs are focusing on finding several different types of income to spread the risk and also obtain growth. We could also see that traditional entrepreneurs within nature based businesses prefer to focus on the main income which often was more traditional products and services rather than tourism. The tourism lifestyle entrepreneurs therefore seem to try more different types of businesses and appear more open minded to create and innovate new products and services.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36294 (URN)
Conference
Atiner 15th Annual International Conference on Tourism, 10-13 June 2019, Athens, Greece
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A. & Bogren, M. (2019). Organizing an entrepreneurial learning programme: The role of people, process and place. Industry & higher education
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Organizing an entrepreneurial learning programme: The role of people, process and place
2019 (English)In: Industry & higher education, ISSN 0950-4222, E-ISSN 2043-6858Article in journal (Refereed) Epub ahead of print
Abstract [en]

Research in entrepreneurship and learning has focused on education about, for and within enterprises. The purpose of this article is to analyse and discuss the importance of organizing for entrepreneurial learning. The research design included a case study of a newly established 1-year programme at a university in Sweden. Data were collected through participant observations and interviews with students, both in groups and individually. The study shows that organizing entrepreneurial learning involves a similar method to that used in entrepreneurial processes in companies with a focus on process, people and place. The contribution of the study is to confirm that Foley’s model with these three components is applicable in the context of entrepreneurial learning. The conclusion is that the process, the people and the place combined to create an environment for the students that was conducive to entrepreneurial learning. The people are the most important factor and should also be considered with regard to process and place. In order to establish a creative environment, organizers should consider the importance of students’ collaboration with stakeholders in the region, through which they can contribute to the development of the community. Students contribute to the local community through their interaction with it.

Keywords
creativity, entrepreneurial education, entrepreneurial learning programme, entrepreneurship, higher education
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36612 (URN)10.1177/0950422219857598 (DOI)
Available from: 2019-07-02 Created: 2019-07-02 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A., Bogren, M. & Cawthorn, A. (2019). Sustainability Information in Large-sized Companies in Europe: Does National Culture Matter?. The International Journal of Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context, 15(1), 45-62
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Information in Large-sized Companies in Europe: Does National Culture Matter?
2019 (English)In: The International Journal of Sustainability in Economic, Social and Cultural Context, ISSN 2325-1115, E-ISSN 2325-114X, Vol. 15, no 1, p. 45-62Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This article focuses on sustainability information in large-sized companies in Europe. The aim of this article is to examine sustainability information in large-sized companies in European countries and the effect that the different national cultures might have on how sustainability is informed. The theoretical frameworks used are stakeholder theory, legitimacy, accountability, and national culture. The study has a qualitative approach, and data were collected during the spring of 2017 from 100 companies in five European countries (Finland, France, Germany, the Netherlands, and Sweden). Data were collected from websites, written documents, and other secondary sources. The results show that there are both differences between companies within each country and between countries. Companies in different countries focus on different aspects of sustainability in their information. The theoretical contribution this study makes is a model that can be used as a tool when discussing sustainability among large-sized companies in Europe. Practical implications include new knowledge of national differences between large-sized companies in how they work with sustainability, which could be of use to companies trying to enter other European markets.

Keywords
Sustainable, Sustainability, National Culture, Large-sized Company, Stakeholder Theory
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36135 (URN)10.18848/2325-1115/CGP/v15i01/45-62 (DOI)2-s2.0-85067205397 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-13 Created: 2019-05-13 Last updated: 2019-07-09Bibliographically approved
Sörensson, A., Cawthorn, A. & Bogren, M. (2019). Sustainability Information Provided by Businesses in Sweden: Differences between categories in nature-based industries?. In: : . Paper presented at E2HS3-19, Milano 5-7 Aug.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Sustainability Information Provided by Businesses in Sweden: Differences between categories in nature-based industries?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Other academic)
National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36910 (URN)
Conference
E2HS3-19, Milano 5-7 Aug
Available from: 2019-08-21 Created: 2019-08-21 Last updated: 2019-11-13Bibliographically approved
Schmudde, U., Sörensson, A. & Skoglund, W. (2019). Tourism Development in Rural Areas – Success Factors for Growth with Support from Gastronomy?. In: : . Paper presented at ATLAS Annual conference 2019, Girona, Spain, September 17-20, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism Development in Rural Areas – Success Factors for Growth with Support from Gastronomy?
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

The significance of gastronomy for the tourism industry is nowadays a well-studied field. Previous research has shown that there are many destinations that have used gastronomy to strengthen regional or national tourism experiences. For instance, Wales in the United Kingdom (Jones and Jenkins, 2002), Australia (Cambourne and Macionis, 2003), the Niagara Region in Canada (Telfer and Hashimoto, 2003) and Singapore (Henderson, 2004) to mention a few examples. These examples show that gastronomy is directly or indirectly connected to the destinations since it inspires tourists to experience the local food of a region. Researchers have shown that gastronomy can also be used in marketing and in branding a region or a nation (Frochot, 2003; Boyne and Hall, 2004; du Rand and Heath, 2006; Hashimoto and Telfer, 2006; Fox, 2007; Lin, Pearson and Cai, 2011). Some studies have shown that tourists seek regional and ethnic gastronomy because of their desire to have unique experiences (Reynolds, 1993; Hall et al, 2003; Cohen and Avieli, 2004; Lin, Pearson and Cai, 2011). Even more important is that tourists’ gastronomy experiences can contribute to their satisfaction with the destination (Nield et al, 2000; Yuksel and Yuksel, 2002) and can also influence their desire to return to the destination (Sparks et al, 2003; Lin, Pearson and Cai, 2011). The Swedish government launched in 2010 “Sweden – the new gastronomy country” with the long term vision is also to gain better profitability for Swedish farmers, growers and producers, rural development, doubling gastronomy exports, more tourists visiting Sweden for the good sake of gastronomy, better public meals and more quality restaurants. But above all, the aim is to focus on the unique tastes, experiences, products and people (http://matlandet.se/about/). 80 % of tourists think that gastronomy and experiences is a main purpose for a trip and within the tourism sector and more and more people travel to rural areas to experience new and local gastronomy. However, there are some regions that are more successful in their use of gastronomy for tourism development. The aim with this paper is to discuss how tourism with the help of gastronomy can develop an underdeveloped tourism region. The study was designed as a qualitative case study where two neighboring regions in the middle of Sweden were chosen. The regions are both peripheral and are consider semi to highly rural by character. Interviews were conducted with gastronomy companies, public actors such as representatives from the region as well as the municipality and gastronomy actors. The result shows that it is important with education in gastronomy in the region. It is also of great importance with networks and key actors that works as an engine for the industry. The results point towards industrial and business heritage as an important component in adapting to new demands in tourism development based on gastronomy. It is not just important with large companies that grow, but also many small scale companies can contribute to gastronomy offers for the tourists.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37281 (URN)
Conference
ATLAS Annual conference 2019, Girona, Spain, September 17-20, 2019
Available from: 2019-09-20 Created: 2019-09-20 Last updated: 2019-09-24Bibliographically approved
Schmudde, U. & Sörensson, A. (2019). Tourism Development in Rural Areas in Sweden In the Shadow of a Well-Established Destination. In: : . Paper presented at Atiner 15th Annual International Conference on Tourism, Athens, Greece, 10-13 June, 2019.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Tourism Development in Rural Areas in Sweden In the Shadow of a Well-Established Destination
2019 (English)Conference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Tourism development is a field that has been studied by researchers for decades. Research has not yet addressed to any larger extent the issue of destinations that are situated in the shadow from a well-established destination. This article defined shadow destinations as destinations that exist in the shadow of a well-established destination with strong and wellknown brands. The well-established destinations have a famous brand and therefore attract many tourists. The shadow destinations on the other hand struggle with their tourism industry and the development of their destination. The aim with this paper was to study destinations in the shadow of well-established destinations with strong brands. The following questions are investigated: How are destinations in the shadow of well-established destinations affected in their tourism development? What are the conditions for tourism development for destinations in the shadow of well-established destinations? How can destinations in the shadow of well-established destinations benefit from the brand of the well-established destination? The study was constructed as a multiple case study where two shadow destinations in a rural setting in the middle of Sweden were chosen. Data was mainly collected from semi-structured interviews with representatives from the municipality, destination marketing organization, tourism companies as well as infrastructure companies. Data was also collected by observations and written materials. The results show that shadow destinations could add value to tourists in well-established destinations by offering an attraction that benefit the tourists. It also shows the importance of networking between the destinations and the usefulness of the well-known brand in their communication towards tourists. The shadow destination could also help a well-known destination to become more sustainable when the pressure of too many tourists of the well-established destinations is reduced. Finally, shadow destinations could create transport routes that make the tourists choose other ways and therefore experience attractions in the shadow destination.

National Category
Social Sciences
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36295 (URN)
Conference
Atiner 15th Annual International Conference on Tourism, Athens, Greece, 10-13 June, 2019
Available from: 2019-06-13 Created: 2019-06-13 Last updated: 2019-06-18Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0001-5261-8169

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