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Koptioug, A., Popov, V. V. ., Botero Vega, C. A., Jiménez-Piqué, E., Katz-Demyanetz, A., Rännar, L.-E. & Bäckström, M. (2020). Compositionally-tailored steel-based materials manufactured by electron beam melting using blended pre-alloyed powders. Materials Science & Engineering: A, 771, Article ID 138587.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositionally-tailored steel-based materials manufactured by electron beam melting using blended pre-alloyed powders
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2020 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 771, article id 138587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents the prospects of additive manufacturing (AM) in metal, using the powder bed fusion (PBF) method Electron Beam Melting (EBM) in fabrication specific steel-based alloys for different applications. The proposed approach includes manufacturing of metals from blended pre-alloyed powders for achieving in situ alloying and the material microstructure tailoring by controlling electron beam energy deposition rate EBM tests were conducted with the blends of 316L stainless steel and Colferoloys 103 and 139, corrosion- and abrasion-resistant iron based materials commonly used for plasma spray coating. Thorough microstructure analysis of the manufactured sample was carried out using electron microscopy and measurements of microhardness and elastic modulus was carried out using nanoindentation. It is concluded that implementation of blended powder pathway in PBF AM allows to widen the scope of available materials through diminishing the dependence on the availability of pre-alloyed powders. Together with beam energy steering this pathway also allows for an effective sample microstructure control at different dimensional scales, resulting in components with unique properties. Therefore, the implementation of ‘blended powder pathway’ in PBF AM provides a possibility of manufacturing components with the composite-like and homogeneous zones allowing for the microstructure control and effectively adding a “4th dimension” to “3D printing". 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Blended powder, EBM, Electron beam melting, Graded material, In situ alloying
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37689 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2019.138587 (DOI)000503324700020 ()2-s2.0-85074019741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Surmeneva, M. A., Koptyug, A., Khrapov, D., Ivanov, Y. F., Mishurova, T., Evsevleev, S., . . . Surmenev, R. A. (2020). In situ synthesis of a binary Ti–10at% Nb alloy by electron beam melting using a mixture of elemental niobium and titanium powders. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 282, Article ID 116646.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>In situ synthesis of a binary Ti–10at% Nb alloy by electron beam melting using a mixture of elemental niobium and titanium powders
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Materials Processing Technology, ISSN 0924-0136, E-ISSN 1873-4774, Vol. 282, article id 116646Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This study reports the results of the preliminary assessment to fabricate Ti-10at% Nb alloy by electron beam melting (EBM®) from a blend of elemental Nb and Ti powders. The microstructure of the EBM-manufactured Ti-10at% Nb alloys is sensitive to the following factors: different sintering properties of Nb and Ti powders, powder particle properties, material viscosities at varying melt pool temperatures, β-stabilizer element content and the EBM® process parameters. Three phases were observed in as-manufactured Ti-10at% Nb alloy: μm-size Nb phase, a Nb-rich β-solid solution surrounding Nb phase, lamellar structured α-phase and β-solid solution with different distribution and volume fraction. Thus, the combination of powder particle characteristics, very short time material spends in molten condition and sluggish kinetics of mixing and diffusional process in Ti-Nb alloy results in heterogeneous microstructures depending on the local Nb content in the powder blend and the EBM® process conditions. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Blended powders, Electron beam melting, In situ alloying, Low-modulus alloy, Solid solution, Ti-Nb alloy
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38653 (URN)10.1016/j.jmatprotec.2020.116646 (DOI)2-s2.0-85079683653 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-03-16 Created: 2020-03-16 Last updated: 2020-03-16Bibliographically approved
Khrapov, D., Koptioug, A., Manabaev, K., Léonard, F., Mishurova, T., Bruno, G., . . . Surmeneva, M. (2020). The impact of post manufacturing treatment of functionally graded Ti6Al4V scaffolds on their surface morphology and mechanical strength. Journal of Materials Research and Technology, 9(2), 1866-1881
Open this publication in new window or tab >>The impact of post manufacturing treatment of functionally graded Ti6Al4V scaffolds on their surface morphology and mechanical strength
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2020 (English)In: Journal of Materials Research and Technology, ISSN 2238-7854, Vol. 9, no 2, p. 1866-1881Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

An ultrasonic vibration post-treatment procedure was suggested for additively manufactured lattices. The aim of the present research was to investigate mechanical properties and the differences in mechanical behavior and fracture modes of Ti6Al4V scaffolds treated with traditional powder recovery system (PRS) and ultrasound vibration (USV). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to investigate the strut surface and the fracture surface morphology. X-ray computed tomography (CT) was employed to evaluate the inner structure, strut dimensions, pore size, as well as the surface morphology of additively manufactured porous scaffolds. Uniaxial compression tests were conducted to obtain elastic modulus, compressive ultimate strength and yield stress. Finite element analysis was performed for a body-centered cubic (BCC) element-based model and for CT-based reconstruction data, as well as for a two-zone scaffold model to evaluate stress distribution during elastic deformation. The scaffold with PRS post treatment displayed ductile behavior, while USV treated scaffold displayed fragile behavior. Double barrel formation of PRS treated scaffold was observed during deformation. Finite element analysis for the CT-based reconstruction revealed the strong impact of surface morphology on the stress distribution in comparison with BCC cell model because of partially molten metal particles on the surface of struts, which usually remain unstressed. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Compression testing, Electron beam melting, Finite element analysis, Powder removal, Scaffold, Titanium alloy, X-ray computed tomography
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38237 (URN)10.1016/j.jmrt.2019.12.019 (DOI)000521952300069 ()2-s2.0-85077181528 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2020-01-15 Created: 2020-01-15 Last updated: 2020-05-04Bibliographically approved
Botero, C., Bäckström, M., Rännar, L.-E., Roos, S., Koptyug, A., Åsvik, K., . . . Ramsperger, M. (2019). Additive Manufacturing of a cold work steel using Electron Beam Melting. In: Proceedings of Conference:  Tooling 2019: . Paper presented at Tooling 2019, Aachen, May 2019. , May
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing of a cold work steel using Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of Conference:  Tooling 2019, 2019, Vol. MayConference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, steel, Electron Beam Melting
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37955 (URN)
Conference
Tooling 2019, Aachen, May 2019
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Botero Vega, C. A., Ramsperger, M., Selte, A., Åsvik, K., Koptioug, A., Skoglund, P., . . . Bäckström, M. (2019). Additive Manufacturing of a Cold-Work Tool Steel using Electron Beam Melting. Steel Research International, 1-6, Article ID 1900448.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing of a Cold-Work Tool Steel using Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, p. 1-6, article id 1900448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is on its way to industrialization. One of the most promising techniques within this field, electron beam melting (EBM), is nowadays used mostly for the fabrication of high‐performance Ti‐based alloy components for the aerospace and medical industry. Among the industrial applications envisioned for the future of EBM, the fabrication of high carbon steels for the tooling industry is of great interest. In this context, the process windows for dense and crack‐free specimens for a highly alloyed (Cr–Mo–V) cold‐work steel powder are presented in this article. High‐solidification rates during EBM processing lead to very fine and homogeneous microstructures. The influence of process parameters on the resulting microstructure and the chemical composition is investigated. In addition, preliminary results show very promising mechanical properties regarding the as‐built and heat‐treated microstructure of the obtained material.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38162 (URN)10.1002/srin.201900448 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075934124 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Sweden-Norway, 20201562
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Popov, V. V. ., Muller-Kamskii, G., Katz-Demyanetz, A., Kovalevsky, A., Usov, S., Trofimcow, D., . . . Koptioug, A. (2019). Additive manufacturing to veterinary practice: recovery of bony defects after the osteosarcoma resection in canines. BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LETTERS, 9(1), 97-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive manufacturing to veterinary practice: recovery of bony defects after the osteosarcoma resection in canines
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2019 (English)In: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LETTERS, ISSN 2093-9868, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 97-108Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper outlines the achievements and challenges in the additive manufacturing (AM) application to veterinary practice. The state-of-the-art in AM application to the veterinary surgery is presented, with the focus of AM for patient-specific implants manufacturing. It also provides critical discussion on some of the potential issues design and technology should overcome for wider and more effective implementation of additively manufactured parts in veterinary practices. Most of the discussions in present paper are related to the metallic implants, manufactured in this case using so-called powder bed additive manufacturing (PB-AM) in titanium alloy Ti-6AL-4V, and to the corresponding process of their design, manufacturing and implementation in veterinary surgery. Procedures of the implant design and individualization for veterinary surgery are illustrated basing on the four performed surgery cases with dog patients. Results of the replacement surgery in dogs indicate that individualized additively manufactured metallic implants significantly increase chances for successful recovery process, and AM techniques present a viable alternative to amputation in a large number of veterinary cases. The same time overcoming challenges of implant individualization in veterinary practice significantly contributes to the knowledge directly relevant to the modern medical practice. An experience from veterinary cases where organ-preserving surgery with 3D-printed patient-specific implants is performed provides a unique opportunity for future development of better human implants.

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Ti-6Al-4V, Implants, Veterinary applications of 3D printing, Clinical cases, Osteosarcoma, Dogs
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36157 (URN)10.1007/s13534-018-00092-7 (DOI)000462195200009 ()30956883 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063445924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Chudinova, E. A., Surmeneva, M. A., Timin, A. S., Karpov, T. E., Wittmar, A., Ulbricht, M., . . . Surmenev, R. A. (2019). Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 176, 130-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 176, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, biocomposites based on 3D porous additively manufactured Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffolds modified with biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) were investigated. Ti64 scaffolds were manufactured via electron beam melting technology using an Arcam machine. Electrophoretic deposition was used to modify the scaffolds with CaPNPs, which were synthesized by precipitation in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). Dynamic light scattering revealed that the CaP/PEI nanoparticles had an average size of 46 ± 18 nm and a zeta potential of +22 ± 9 mV. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the obtained spherical CaPNPs had an average diameter of approximately 90 nm. The titanium-based scaffolds coated with CaPNPs exhibited improved hydrophilic surface properties, with a water contact angle below 5°. Cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the CaPNPs-coated Ti64 scaffolds indicated that the improved hydrophilicity was beneficial for the attachment and growth of cells in vitro. The Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffold supported an increase in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells. In addition to the favourable cell proliferation and differentiation, Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffolds displayed increased mineralization compared to non-coated Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Thus, the developed composite 3D scaffolds of Ti6Al4V functionalized with CaPNPs are promising materials for different applications related to bone repair. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Calcium phosphate, Cell adhesion, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles, Proliferation in vivo, Scaffold, Surface properties
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35415 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.12.047 (DOI)000465051800016 ()30597410 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059137646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Surmeneva, M., Lapanje, A., Chudinova, E., Ivanova, A., Koptioug, A., Loza, K., . . . Surmenev, R. (2019). Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 480, 822-829
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 480, p. 822-829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of an ideal bone graft substitute has been a long-standing effort, and a number of strategies have been developed to improve bone regeneration. Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing method allowing for the production of porous implants with highly defined external dimensions and internal architectures. The increasing surface area of the implant may also increase the abilities of pathogenic microorganisms to adhere to the surfaces and form a biofilm, which may result in serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the modifications of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds to reduce the abilities of bacteria to attach to the EBM-manufactured implant surface. The layers composed of silver (Ag), calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) and combinations of both were formed on the EBM-fabricated metallic scaffolds by electrophoretic deposition in order to provide them with antimicrobial properties. The assay of bacterial colonization on the surface was performed with the exposure of scaffold surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus cells for up to 17 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the relationships between different surface features of the studied samples and bacterial adhesion. The results indicate that by modifying the implant surface with appropriate nanostructures that change the hydrophobicity and the surface roughness at the nano scale, physical cues are provided that disrupt bacterial adhesion. Our results clearly show that AgNPs at a concentration of approximately 0.02 mg/сm 2 that were deposited together with CaPNPs covered by positively charge polyethylenimine (PEI) on the surface of EBM-sintered Ti6Al4V scaffolds hindered bacterial growth, as the total number of attached cells (NAC) of S. aureus remained at the same level during the 17 h of exposure, which indicates bacteriostatic activity. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Antimicrobial assay, Bacteriostatic activity, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35863 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.03.003 (DOI)000463008200092 ()2-s2.0-85062680211 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Chudinova, E., Surmeneva, M., Koptioug, A., Sokolova, V., Prymak, O., Bouckercha, S., . . . Surmenev, R. (2019). Determination of the properties and loading efficiency of encapsulated BSA-FITC and dexamethasone for drug delivery systems. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Paper presented at 16th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2019, Tomsk, Russian Federation, 23 April 2019 through 26 April 2019. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 597(1), Article ID 012056.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of the properties and loading efficiency of encapsulated BSA-FITC and dexamethasone for drug delivery systems
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2019 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 597, no 1, article id 012056Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work porous microparticles of calcium carbonate were synthesized with bovine serum albumin - fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (BSA-FITC) and dexamethasone, and then used for encapsulation in polymer microcapsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly (LbL). The properties of the obtained microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, infrared-, ultraviolet- and visible spectroscopy. According to the performed DLS measurements, an average hydrodynamic diameter ranged from 4 to 8 m and zeta-potential for all types of capsules was determined as -18 and -21 mV. BSA-FITC was encapsulated using this approach yielded a loading efficiency of 49 % protein. This value calculated for dexamethasone was of 38%. The microcapsules filled with an encapsulated drug may find applications in the field of biotechnology, biochemistry, and medicine. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37679 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/597/1/012056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073635032 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2019, Tomsk, Russian Federation, 23 April 2019 through 26 April 2019
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Petrone, N., Candiotto, G., Marzella, E., Uriati, F., Carraro, G., Bäckström, M. & Koptyug, A. (2019). Feasibility of using a novel instrumented human head surrogate to measure helmet, head and brain kinematics and intracranial pressure during multidirectional impact tests. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(S1), S78-S84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility of using a novel instrumented human head surrogate to measure helmet, head and brain kinematics and intracranial pressure during multidirectional impact tests
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no S1, p. S78-S84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Aim of the work is to present the feasibility of using an Instrumented Human Head Surrogate (IHHS-1) during multidirectional impacts while wearing a modern ski helmet. The IHHS-1 is intended to provide reliable and repeatable data for the experimental validation of FE models and for the experimental evaluation of modern helmets designed to enhance the degree of protection against multidirectional impacts. Design: The new IHHS-1 includes 9 triaxial MEMS accelerometers embedded in a silicone rubber brain, independently molded and presenting lobes separation and cerebellum, placed into an ABS skull filled with surrogate cerebrospinal fluid. A triaxial MEMS gyroscope is placed at the brain center of mass. Intracranial pressure can be detected by eight pressure sensors applied to the skull internal surface along a transversal plane located at the brain center of mass and two at the apex. Additional MEMS sensors positioned over the skull and the helmet allow comparison between outer and inner structure kinematics and surrogate CSF pressure behavior. Methods: The IHHS-1 was mounted through a Hybrid III neck on a force platform and impacted with a striker connected to a pendulum tower, with the impact energies reaching 24J. Impact locations were aligned with the brain center of mass and located in the back (sagittal axis), right (90° from sagittal axis), back/right (45°), and front right (135°) locations. Following dynamic data were collected: values of the linear accelerations and angular velocities of the brain, skull and helmet; intracranial pressures inside the skull. Results: Despite the relatively low intensity of impacts (HIC at skull max value 46), the skull rotational actions reached BrIC values of 0.33 and angular accelerations of 5216 rad/s2, whereas brain angular acceleration resulted between 1,44 and 2,1 times lower with similar values of BrIC. Conclusions: The IHHS-1 is a physical head surrogate that can produce repeatable data for the interpretation of inner structures behavior during multidirectional impacts with or without helmets of different characteristics. 

Keywords
Accelerometers, Angular velocity, Helmet evaluation, Human head, Intracranial pressure, Surrogate
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36704 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2019.05.015 (DOI)000493587000016 ()31272916 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068078314 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2964-9500

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