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Chudinova, E. A., Surmeneva, M. A., Timin, A. S., Karpov, T. E., Wittmar, A., Ulbricht, M., . . . Surmenev, R. A. (2019). Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 176, 130-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 176, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, biocomposites based on 3D porous additively manufactured Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffolds modified with biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) were investigated. Ti64 scaffolds were manufactured via electron beam melting technology using an Arcam machine. Electrophoretic deposition was used to modify the scaffolds with CaPNPs, which were synthesized by precipitation in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). Dynamic light scattering revealed that the CaP/PEI nanoparticles had an average size of 46 ± 18 nm and a zeta potential of +22 ± 9 mV. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the obtained spherical CaPNPs had an average diameter of approximately 90 nm. The titanium-based scaffolds coated with CaPNPs exhibited improved hydrophilic surface properties, with a water contact angle below 5°. Cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the CaPNPs-coated Ti64 scaffolds indicated that the improved hydrophilicity was beneficial for the attachment and growth of cells in vitro. The Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffold supported an increase in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells. In addition to the favourable cell proliferation and differentiation, Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffolds displayed increased mineralization compared to non-coated Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Thus, the developed composite 3D scaffolds of Ti6Al4V functionalized with CaPNPs are promising materials for different applications related to bone repair. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Calcium phosphate, Cell adhesion, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles, Proliferation in vivo, Scaffold, Surface properties
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35415 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.12.047 (DOI)2-s2.0-85059137646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-01-10Bibliographically approved
Surmeneva, M., Lapanje, A., Chudinova, E., Ivanova, A., Koptioug, A., Loza, K., . . . Surmenev, R. (2019). Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 480, 822-829
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 480, p. 822-829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of an ideal bone graft substitute has been a long-standing effort, and a number of strategies have been developed to improve bone regeneration. Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing method allowing for the production of porous implants with highly defined external dimensions and internal architectures. The increasing surface area of the implant may also increase the abilities of pathogenic microorganisms to adhere to the surfaces and form a biofilm, which may result in serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the modifications of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds to reduce the abilities of bacteria to attach to the EBM-manufactured implant surface. The layers composed of silver (Ag), calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) and combinations of both were formed on the EBM-fabricated metallic scaffolds by electrophoretic deposition in order to provide them with antimicrobial properties. The assay of bacterial colonization on the surface was performed with the exposure of scaffold surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus cells for up to 17 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the relationships between different surface features of the studied samples and bacterial adhesion. The results indicate that by modifying the implant surface with appropriate nanostructures that change the hydrophobicity and the surface roughness at the nano scale, physical cues are provided that disrupt bacterial adhesion. Our results clearly show that AgNPs at a concentration of approximately 0.02 mg/сm 2 that were deposited together with CaPNPs covered by positively charge polyethylenimine (PEI) on the surface of EBM-sintered Ti6Al4V scaffolds hindered bacterial growth, as the total number of attached cells (NAC) of S. aureus remained at the same level during the 17 h of exposure, which indicates bacteriostatic activity. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Antimicrobial assay, Bacteriostatic activity, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35863 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.03.003 (DOI)2-s2.0-85062680211 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Norris, K., Mishukova, O. I., Zykwinska, A., Colliec-Jouault, S., Sinquin, C., Koptioug, A., . . . Douglas, T. E. L. (2019). Marine Polysaccharide-Collagen Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy Formed by Self-Assembly. Micromachines, 10(1), Article ID 68.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Marine Polysaccharide-Collagen Coatings on Ti6Al4V Alloy Formed by Self-Assembly
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2019 (English)In: Micromachines, ISSN 2072-666X, E-ISSN 2072-666X, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 68Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Polysaccharides of marine origin are gaining interest as biomaterial components. Bacteria derived from deep-sea hydrothermal vents can produce sulfated exopolysaccharides (EPS), which can influence cell behavior. The use of such polysaccharides as components of organic, collagen fibril-based coatings on biomaterial surfaces remains unexplored. In this study, collagen fibril coatings enriched with HE800 and GY785 EPS derivatives were deposited on titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) scaffolds produced by rapid prototyping and subjected to physicochemical and cell biological characterization. Coatings were formed by a self-assembly process whereby polysaccharides were added to acidic collagen molecule solution, followed by neutralization to induced self-assembly of collagen fibrils. Fibril formation resulted in collagen hydrogel formation. Hydrogels formed directly on Ti6Al4V surfaces, and fibrils adsorbed onto the surface. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis of collagen fibril coatings revealed association of polysaccharides with fibrils. Cell biological characterization revealed good cell adhesion and growth on bare Ti6Al4V surfaces, as well as coatings of collagen fibrils only and collagen fibrils enhanced with HE800 and GY785 EPS derivatives. Hence, the use of both EPS derivatives as coating components is feasible. Further work should focus on cell differentiation.

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35809 (URN)10.3390/mi10010068 (DOI)000459735300067 ()30669427 (PubMedID)
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Popov, V. V., Katz-Demyanetz, A., Koptioug, A. & Bamberger, M. (2019). Selective electron beam melting of Al0.5CrMoNbTa0.5 high entropy alloys using elemental powder blend. Heliyon, 5(2), Article ID e01188.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Selective electron beam melting of Al0.5CrMoNbTa0.5 high entropy alloys using elemental powder blend
2019 (English)In: Heliyon, ISSN 2405-8440, Vol. 5, no 2, article id e01188Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

High Entropy Alloys (HEAs) is a novel promising class of multi-component materials which may demonstrate superior mechanical properties useful for high-temperature applications. Despite the high potential of HEAs, their production is complicated, using pre-alloyed powders in powder metallurgy route. This significantly complicates development and implementation of refractory BCC solid solution based HEAs. The present paper reports on experiments aiming at production of Al0.5CrMoNbTa0.5 multi-principle alloy using powder bed beam based additive manufacturing. Samples were manufactured using Selective Electron Beam Melting (SEBM) additive manufacturing technique from a blend of elemental powders aiming at achieving microstructure with high configurational entropy. Though it was not possible to achieve completely homogeneous microstructure, the as-printed material was composed of the zones with two multi-component solid solutions, which differed only by Al content confirming in situ alloying. The process parameters optimization was not carried out and the as-print material contained a notable amount of residual porosity. It was possible to reach lower porosity level using heat treatment at 1300 °C for 24 hours, however undesirable alloy composition changes took place. The main conclusion is that the production of the Al0.5CrMoNbTa0.5 multi-principle alloy from elemental powder blends using SEBM technique is achievable, but the process parameter optimization rather than post-process heat treatment should be performed to reduce the porosity of samples. 

Keywords
Materials science, Metallurgical engineering
National Category
Electrical Engineering, Electronic Engineering, Information Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35826 (URN)10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01188 (DOI)000460082200017 ()30839937 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85061049225 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-25Bibliographically approved
Chudinova, E., Surmeneva, M., Koptioug, A., Loza, K., Prymak, O., Epple, M. & Surmenev, R. (2019). Surface modification of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds manufactured by electron beam melting. In: Godymchuk A.,Rieznichenko L.,Semenov M. (Ed.), : . Paper presented at 15th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2018, 24 April 2018 through 27 April 2018. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP) (1)
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Surface modification of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds manufactured by electron beam melting
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2019 (English)In: / [ed] Godymchuk A.,Rieznichenko L.,Semenov M., Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, no 1Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper, the results of the surface functionalization of the Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds with different structures for use as a material for medical implants are presented. Radio frequency magnetron sputtering was used to modify the surface of the porous structures by deposition of the biocompatible hydroxyapatite (HA) coating with the thickness of 86050 nm. The surface morphology, elemental and phase composition of the HA-coated scaffolds were studied. According to energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, the stoichiometric ratio of Ca/P for flat, orthorhombic and cubic scaffolds is 1.65, 1.60, 1.53, respectively, which is close to that of stoichiometric ratio for HA (Ca/P = 1.67). It was revealed that this method of deposition makes it possible to obtain the homogeneous crystalline coating both on the dense sample and in the case of scaffolds of complex geometry with different lattice cell structure. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35814 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1145/1/012030 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060053396 (Scopus ID)
Conference
15th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2018, 24 April 2018 through 27 April 2018
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Khrapov, D., Surmeneva, M., Koptioug, A., Evsevleev, S., Lé Onard, F., Bruno, G. & Surmenev, R. (2019). X-ray computed tomography of multiple-layered scaffolds with controlled gradient cell lattice structures fabricated via additive manufacturing. In: : . Paper presented at 15th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2018, 24 April 2018 through 27 April 2018. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 1145(1), Article ID 012044.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>X-ray computed tomography of multiple-layered scaffolds with controlled gradient cell lattice structures fabricated via additive manufacturing
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2019 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this paper we report on the characterization by X-ray computed tomography of calcium phosphate (CaP) and polycaprolactone (PCL) coatings on Ti-6Al-4V alloy scaffolds used as a material for medical implants. The cylindrical scaffold has greater porosity of the inner part than the external part, thus, mimicking trabecular and cortical bone, respectively. The prismatic scaffolds have uniform porosity. Surface of the scaffolds was modified with calcium phosphate (CaP) and polycaprolactone (PCL) by dip-coating to improve biocompatibility and mechanical properties. Computed tomography performed with X-ray and synchrotron radiation revealed the defects of structure and morphology of CaP and PCL coatings showing small platelet-like and spider-web-like structures, respectively. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Series
Journal of Physics: Conference Series, ISSN 1742-6588, E-ISSN 1742-6596
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35815 (URN)10.1088/1742-6596/1145/1/012044 (DOI)2-s2.0-85060005564 (Scopus ID)
Conference
15th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2018, 24 April 2018 through 27 April 2018
Available from: 2019-03-19 Created: 2019-03-19 Last updated: 2019-03-19Bibliographically approved
Petrone, N., Carraro, G., Dal Castello, S., Broggio, L., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2018). A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate For The Impact Evaluation Of Helmets. In: Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at 12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26 to 29 March 2018 (pp. 269). , 2, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate For The Impact Evaluation Of Helmets
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 269-, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel Human Head Surrogate was obtained from available MRI scans of a 50th percentile male human head. Addictive manufacturing was used to produce the skull, the brain and the skin. All original MRI geometries were partially smoothed and adjusted to provide the best biofidelity compatible with printing and molding technology. The skull was 3D-printed in ABS and ten pressure sensors were placed into it. The brain surrogate was cast from silicon rubber in the 3d-printed plastic molds. Nine tri-axial accelerometers (placed at the tops of the lobes, at the sides of the lobes, in the cerebellum and in the center of mass) and a three-axis gyroscope (at the center of mass) were inserted into the silicon brain during casting. The cranium, after assembly with brain, was filled with silicon oil mimicking the cerebral fluid. Silicon rubber was cast in additional 3d-printed molds to form the skin surrounding the cranium. The skull base was adapted to be compatible with the Hybrid-III neck and allow the exit of brain sensors cabling. Preliminary experiments were carried out proving the functionality of the surrogate. Results showed how multiple accelerometers and pressure sensors allowed a better comprehension of the head complex motion during impacts.

Keywords
human head, surrogate, additive manufacturing, accelerometers, impact tests
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies Other Materials Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32502 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060269 (DOI)
Conference
12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26 to 29 March 2018
Projects
STII
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Koptioug, A., Bäckström, M., Botero Vega, C. A., Popov, V. & Chudinova, E. (2018). Developing new materials for Electron Beam Melting: experiences and challenges. In: : . Paper presented at THERMEC'2018 International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, Paris, France July 8-13, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing new materials for Electron Beam Melting: experiences and challenges
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lack of industrially available materials for additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials along with the promises of materials with improved or unique properties provides a strong drive for developing new process/material combinations. As powder bed technologies for metallic materials are relatively new to the market, and to some extent are only maturing, developers of new process/material combinations have certain challenges to overcome. Firstly, basic knowledge on the behavior of materials (even those well established for other applications) under extreme conditions of melting/solidification with beam-based AM methods is far from being adequate. Secondly, manufacturing of the equipment is up to date driven by industrial application, thus optimization of the AM machines for small test batches of powders is still belongs to research and development projects. Also, majority of the powder manufacturers are primarily driven by the market development, and even they are well aware of the demands imposed by the powder bed AM machines, availability of small test batches of adequate powders may be problematic or at least quite costly for the R&D oriented users. Present paper describes the experiences in developing new materials for EBM A2 machine by Arcam EBM, modified for operating with powder batches of 100-200 ml and less. In particular it discusses achievements and challenges of working with powders from different materials with specifications far beyond the range suggested by machine manufacturer. Also it discusses the possibility of using blended rather than pre-alloyed powders for achieving both composite-like and alloyed materials in the same part by steering electron beam energy deposition strategy.

Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, Electron Beam Melting, material development, blended powders, in situ alloying, composite materials
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35136 (URN)
Conference
THERMEC'2018 International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, Paris, France July 8-13, 2018
Note

Paper accepted, in print

Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Pushilina, N., Panin, A., Syrtanov, M., Kashkarov, E., Kudiiarov, V., Perevalova, O., . . . Koptioug, A. (2018). Hydrogen-induced phase transformation and microstructure evolution for Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by electron beam melting. Metals, 8(5), Article ID 301.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen-induced phase transformation and microstructure evolution for Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by electron beam melting
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2018 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM) under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 µm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α'' and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Electron beam melting, Hydrogen, Microstructure, Phase transitions, Titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33739 (URN)10.3390/met8050301 (DOI)000435109300011 ()2-s2.0-85046696127 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-10 Created: 2018-06-10 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Pushilina, N., Syrtanov, M., Kashkarov, E., Murashkina, T., Kudiiarov, V., Laptev, R., . . . Koptioug, A. (2018). Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy. Materials, 11(5), Article ID 763.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
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2018 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influence of manufacturing parameters (beam current from 13 to 17 mA, speed function 98 and 85) on microstructure and hydrogen sorption behavior of electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V parts was investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and phase composition of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts. The average alpha lath width decreases with the increase of the speed function at the fixed beam current (17 mA). Finer microstructure was formed at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 98. The hydrogenation of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was performed at the temperatures 500 and 650 degrees C at the constant pressure of 1 atm up to 0.3 wt %. The correlation between the microstructure and hydrogen sorption kinetics by EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was demonstrated. Lower average hydrogen sorption rate at 500 degrees C was in the sample with coarser microstructure manufactured at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 85. The difference of hydrogen sorption kinetics between the manufactured samples at 650 degrees C was insignificant. The shape of the kinetics curves of hydrogen sorption indicates the phase transition alpha(H)+beta(H)->beta(H).

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34106 (URN)10.3390/ma11050763 (DOI)000434711700113 ()29747471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046844088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2964-9500

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