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Publications (10 of 105) Show all publications
Petrone, N., Carraro, G., Dal Castello, S., Broggio, L., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2018). A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate For The Impact Evaluation Of Helmets. In: Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at 12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26 to 29 March 2018 (pp. 269). , 2, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A Novel Instrumented Human Head Surrogate For The Impact Evaluation Of Helmets
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2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 269-, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

A novel Human Head Surrogate was obtained from available MRI scans of a 50th percentile male human head. Addictive manufacturing was used to produce the skull, the brain and the skin. All original MRI geometries were partially smoothed and adjusted to provide the best biofidelity compatible with printing and molding technology. The skull was 3D-printed in ABS and ten pressure sensors were placed into it. The brain surrogate was cast from silicon rubber in the 3d-printed plastic molds. Nine tri-axial accelerometers (placed at the tops of the lobes, at the sides of the lobes, in the cerebellum and in the center of mass) and a three-axis gyroscope (at the center of mass) were inserted into the silicon brain during casting. The cranium, after assembly with brain, was filled with silicon oil mimicking the cerebral fluid. Silicon rubber was cast in additional 3d-printed molds to form the skin surrounding the cranium. The skull base was adapted to be compatible with the Hybrid-III neck and allow the exit of brain sensors cabling. Preliminary experiments were carried out proving the functionality of the surrogate. Results showed how multiple accelerometers and pressure sensors allowed a better comprehension of the head complex motion during impacts.

Keywords
human head, surrogate, additive manufacturing, accelerometers, impact tests
National Category
Medical Laboratory and Measurements Technologies Other Materials Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering Interaction Technologies
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32502 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060269 (DOI)
Conference
12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26 to 29 March 2018
Projects
STII
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Koptioug, A., Bäckström, M., Botero Vega, C. A., Popov, V. & Chudinova, E. (2018). Developing new materials for Electron Beam Melting: experiences and challenges. In: : . Paper presented at THERMEC'2018 International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, Paris, France July 8-13, 2018.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Developing new materials for Electron Beam Melting: experiences and challenges
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2018 (English)Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Lack of industrially available materials for additive manufacturing (AM) of metallic materials along with the promises of materials with improved or unique properties provides a strong drive for developing new process/material combinations. As powder bed technologies for metallic materials are relatively new to the market, and to some extent are only maturing, developers of new process/material combinations have certain challenges to overcome. Firstly, basic knowledge on the behavior of materials (even those well established for other applications) under extreme conditions of melting/solidification with beam-based AM methods is far from being adequate. Secondly, manufacturing of the equipment is up to date driven by industrial application, thus optimization of the AM machines for small test batches of powders is still belongs to research and development projects. Also, majority of the powder manufacturers are primarily driven by the market development, and even they are well aware of the demands imposed by the powder bed AM machines, availability of small test batches of adequate powders may be problematic or at least quite costly for the R&D oriented users. Present paper describes the experiences in developing new materials for EBM A2 machine by Arcam EBM, modified for operating with powder batches of 100-200 ml and less. In particular it discusses achievements and challenges of working with powders from different materials with specifications far beyond the range suggested by machine manufacturer. Also it discusses the possibility of using blended rather than pre-alloyed powders for achieving both composite-like and alloyed materials in the same part by steering electron beam energy deposition strategy.

Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, Electron Beam Melting, material development, blended powders, in situ alloying, composite materials
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35136 (URN)
Conference
THERMEC'2018 International Conference on Processing and Manufacturing of Advanced Materials Processing, Fabrication, Properties, Applications, Paris, France July 8-13, 2018
Note

Paper accepted, in print

Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-13Bibliographically approved
Pushilina, N., Panin, A., Syrtanov, M., Kashkarov, E., Kudiiarov, V., Perevalova, O., . . . Koptioug, A. (2018). Hydrogen-induced phase transformation and microstructure evolution for Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by electron beam melting. Metals, 8(5), Article ID 301.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Hydrogen-induced phase transformation and microstructure evolution for Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by electron beam melting
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2018 (English)In: Metals, ISSN 2075-4701, Vol. 8, no 5, article id 301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In this paper, phase transitions and microstructure evolution in titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts produced by electron beam melting (EBM) under hydrogenation was investigated. Hydrogenation was carried out at the temperature of 650 °C to the absolute hydrogen concentrations in the samples of 0.29, 0.58, and 0.90 wt. %. Comparative analysis of microstructure changes in Ti-6Al-4V alloy parts was performed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). Furthermore, in-situ XRD was used to investigate the phase transitions in the samples during hydrogenation. The structure of Ti-6Al-4V parts produced by EBM is represented by the α phase plates with the transverse length of 0.2 µm, the β phase both in the form of plates and globular grains, and metastable α'' and ω phases. Hydrogenation to the concentration of 0.29 wt. % leads to the formation of intermetallic Ti3Al phase. The dimensions of intermetallic Ti3Al plates and their volume fraction increase significantly with hydrogen concentration up to 0.58 wt. % along with precipitation of nano-sized crystals of titanium δ hydrides. Individual Ti3Al plates decay into nanocrystals with increasing hydrogen concentration up to 0.9 wt. % accompanied by the increase of proportion and size of hydride plates. Hardness of EBM Ti-6Al-4V alloy decreases with hydrogen content. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Electron beam melting, Hydrogen, Microstructure, Phase transitions, Titanium Ti-6Al-4V alloy
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33739 (URN)10.3390/met8050301 (DOI)000435109300011 ()2-s2.0-85046696127 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-10 Created: 2018-06-10 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Pushilina, N., Syrtanov, M., Kashkarov, E., Murashkina, T., Kudiiarov, V., Laptev, R., . . . Koptioug, A. (2018). Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy. Materials, 11(5), Article ID 763.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of Manufacturing Parameters on Microstructure and Hydrogen Sorption Behavior of Electron Beam Melted Titanium Ti-6Al-4V Alloy
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2018 (English)In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 11, no 5, article id 763Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Influence of manufacturing parameters (beam current from 13 to 17 mA, speed function 98 and 85) on microstructure and hydrogen sorption behavior of electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V parts was investigated. Optical and scanning electron microscopies as well as X-ray diffraction were used to investigate the microstructure and phase composition of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts. The average alpha lath width decreases with the increase of the speed function at the fixed beam current (17 mA). Finer microstructure was formed at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 98. The hydrogenation of EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was performed at the temperatures 500 and 650 degrees C at the constant pressure of 1 atm up to 0.3 wt %. The correlation between the microstructure and hydrogen sorption kinetics by EBM Ti-6Al-4V parts was demonstrated. Lower average hydrogen sorption rate at 500 degrees C was in the sample with coarser microstructure manufactured at the beam current 17 mA and speed function 85. The difference of hydrogen sorption kinetics between the manufactured samples at 650 degrees C was insignificant. The shape of the kinetics curves of hydrogen sorption indicates the phase transition alpha(H)+beta(H)->beta(H).

National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34106 (URN)10.3390/ma11050763 (DOI)000434711700113 ()29747471 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85046844088 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2018-07-04Bibliographically approved
Olsén, J., Shen, Z., Liu, L., Koptyug, A. & Rännar, L.-E. (2018). Micro- and macro-structural heterogeneities in 316L stainless steel prepared by electron-beam melting. Materials Characterization, 141, 1-7
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Micro- and macro-structural heterogeneities in 316L stainless steel prepared by electron-beam melting
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2018 (English)In: Materials Characterization, ISSN 1044-5803, E-ISSN 1873-4189, Vol. 141, p. 1-7Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This is a study of the micro- and macrostructural variations in samples of stainless steel with the overall composition of the grade 316L, produced using electron beam melting. Electron beam melting is one of the processing methods under consideration for manufacturing some of the International Thermo- Nuclear Experimental Reactor In-Vessel components. Therefore further studies of the homogeneity of the material were conducted. Electron beam melting results in a complicated thermal history of the manufactured part giving a significant impact on the microstructure. A cellular structure that is often observed in samples prepared by selective laser melting was found in the top layers of the specimens. Further down, the structure changed until the cellular structure was almost non-existing, and the grain boundaries had become more pronounced. This revelation of a heterogeneous structure throughout the entire part is crucial for large-scale industrial applications like the Thermo- Nuclear Experimental Reactor to make sure that it is understood that the properties of the material might not be the same at every point, as well as to assure that the correct post-treatment is done. It is also exposed that a significant part of this change is due to molybdenum redistribution inside the sample when it diffuses from the cell boundaries into the cells, and into bigger agglomerates in the grain boundaries. This diffusion seems not to affect the microhardness of the samples. 

Keywords
316L stainless steel, Additive manufacturing, Electron beam melting, Heterogeneous material, Microstructure
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-33692 (URN)10.1016/j.matchar.2018.04.026 (DOI)000435428100001 ()2-s2.0-85046110254 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-06-01 Created: 2018-06-01 Last updated: 2018-08-10Bibliographically approved
Douglas, T. E. L., Hempel, U., Żydek, J., Vladescu, A., Pietryga, K., Kaeswurm, J. A. H., . . . Pamuła, E. (2018). Pectin coatings on titanium alloy scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Promotion of human bone marrow stromal cell proliferation. Materials letters (General ed.), 227, 225-228
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Pectin coatings on titanium alloy scaffolds produced by additive manufacturing: Promotion of human bone marrow stromal cell proliferation
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2018 (English)In: Materials letters (General ed.), ISSN 0167-577X, E-ISSN 1873-4979, Vol. 227, p. 225-228Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Ti6Al4V is a popular biomaterial for load-bearing implants for bone contact, which can be fabricated by additive manufacturing technologies. Their long-term success depends on their stable anchoring in surrounding bone, which in turn depends on formation of new bone tissue on the implant surface, for which adhesion and proliferation of bone-forming cells is a pre-requisite. Hence, surface coatings which promote cell adhesion and proliferation are desirable. Here, Ti6Al4V discs prepared by additive manufacturing (EBM) were coated with layers of pectins, calcium-binding polysaccharides derived from citrus (C) and apple (A), which also contained alkaline phosphatase (ALP), the enzyme responsible for mineralization of bone tissue. Adhesion and proliferation of human bone marrow stromal cells (hBMSC) were assessed. Proliferation after 7 days was increased by A-ALP coatings and, in particular, by C-ALP coatings. Cell morphology was similar on coated and uncoated samples. In conclusion, ALP-loaded pectin coatings promote hBMSC adhesion and proliferation. 

Keywords
Biomaterials, Biomimetic, Thin films
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34113 (URN)10.1016/j.matlet.2018.05.060 (DOI)000436420200059 ()2-s2.0-85047304412 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2018-07-04 Created: 2018-07-04 Last updated: 2018-08-13Bibliographically approved
Popov, V., Koptioug, A., Radulov, I., Maccari, F. & Muller, G. (2018). Prospects of additive manufacturing of rare-earth and non-rare-earth permanent magnets. Paper presented at 15th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, GCSM 2017, Haifa, Israel, 25 September 2017 through 27 September 2017. Procedia Manufacturing, 21, 100-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Prospects of additive manufacturing of rare-earth and non-rare-earth permanent magnets
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2018 (English)In: Procedia Manufacturing, E-ISSN 2351-9789, Vol. 21, p. 100-108Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Additive manufacturing (AM) or 3D-printing started as a prototyping technique in plastic has succeeded in metals for life safety applications as airspace and medical implants production. Today having advantages in fabricating products of desired shape, geometry, lightweight structures and required mechanical properties, 3D-printing faces a new challenge - AM of permanent magnets (PM). 3D-printing significantly simplifies manufacturing of net-shape bonded magnets, simplifies the new phase magnets prototyping, and also enables efficient use of rare earth (RE) elements [1]. The major development nowadays is performed by AM of bonded Nd-Fe-B using different binders/polymers [1, 2]. 3D printing technologies of non-RE magnets are not so widely represented [3]. The AM of RE-free PM, such as Al-Ni-Co [4] and MnAl(C) [5], is also developed, because of their great benefit of being non-RE, presenting advantages of AM technology and sufficient magnetic properties. This work presents the state-of-the-art of 3D-printing of PM, including RE and RE-free, bonded and non-bonded magnets. Prospects of electron beam melting (EBM) of non-rare-earth MnAl(C) are shown. 

Keywords
3D-Printing, addititve manufacturing, permanent magnets, rare-earth magnets
National Category
Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-34550 (URN)10.1016/j.promfg.2018.02.199 (DOI)2-s2.0-85049205468 (Scopus ID)
Conference
15th Global Conference on Sustainable Manufacturing, GCSM 2017, Haifa, Israel, 25 September 2017 through 27 September 2017
Available from: 2018-09-28 Created: 2018-09-28 Last updated: 2018-09-28Bibliographically approved
Petrone, N., Giacomin, M., Koptioug, A. & Bäckström, M. (2018). Racing Wheels’ Effect on Drag/Side Forces Acting on a Cyclist at Sportstech-Miun Wind Tunnel. In: Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at 12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018 (pp. 210). , 2, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Racing Wheels’ Effect on Drag/Side Forces Acting on a Cyclist at Sportstech-Miun Wind Tunnel
2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018 / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 210-, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Abstract: the wind tunnel at the SportsTech Research Centre at Mid Sweden University (MIUN, Östersund) was opened in 2015 for sports technology research. It is dedicated primarily to analysis of equipment performance and garment development and especially suitable for roller skiing, running and cycling. The aim of this work was to develop a full-scale study to investigate the aerodynamic behaviour of a cyclist facing front and cross wind at different yaw angles (from 0° to 30°) and speeds. To reach this goal, a rotating structure supported by a force platform was constructed. It includes a set of rollers on which fully unrestrained cycling is possible. The method was applied to the comparison of three wheelsets (differing in material, height and shape of the rim, number and shape of spokes) in terms of drag and side aerodynamic forces during a cyclist’s ride at 30 km/h, while keeping all the other factors constant. Resulting curves allowed estimating differences of 4% and 9% when applied to a recent time trial competition.

Keywords
aerodynamics, cycling, wheels, wind tunnel, drag, side, full-scale
National Category
Fluid Mechanics and Acoustics Tribology (Interacting Surfaces including Friction, Lubrication and Wear)
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32501 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060210 (DOI)
Conference
12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018
Projects
STII
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Koptioug, A., Bäckström, M., Ainegren, M. & Nilsson, K. (2018). Studying Moisture Transport Trough "Active" Fabrics Using Humidity-Temperature Sensor Nodes. In: Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel (Ed.), Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: . Paper presented at 12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018 (pp. 230). , 2, Article ID 6.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Studying Moisture Transport Trough "Active" Fabrics Using Humidity-Temperature Sensor Nodes
2018 (English)In: Proceedings, Volume 2, ISEA 2018: / [ed] Dr Hugo Espinosa, David R. Rowlands, Jonathan Shepherd, Professor David Thiel, 2018, Vol. 2, p. 230-, article id 6Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Active fabrics providing better comfort of the garments and footwear rapidly become an essential part of our life. However, only limited information about the performance of such fabrics is commonly available for the garment and footwear designers, and tests are often done only with the final products. Thus development of the objective testing methods for the fabric assemblies containing microporous membranes and garments using them is one of the important topics. Garment tests in the climate chamber when exercising in windy and rainy conditions with a set of temperature and humidity sensors placed over the body allow comparing manufactured garments for thermal and humidity comfort. To allow for better material testing a new laboratory setup was developed for studying the dynamics of the humidity transport through different fabrics at realistic conditions in extension of the existing ISO test procedure. Present paper discusses the experimental procedures and first results acquired with new setup.

Keywords
active fabrics, garments comfort, microporous membranes, humidity transport, experimental setup
National Category
Textile, Rubber and Polymeric Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-32499 (URN)10.3390/proceedings2060230 (DOI)
Conference
12th Conference on the Engineering of Sport, Brisbane, Australia, 26-28 March 2018
Projects
STII
Funder
VINNOVA
Available from: 2017-12-19 Created: 2017-12-19 Last updated: 2018-04-25Bibliographically approved
Koptioug, A., Rännar, L.-E., Botero Vega, C. A., Bäckström, M. & Popov, V. (2018). Unique material compositions obtained by Electron beam melting of blended powders. In: Euro PM2018 Proceedings: . Paper presented at Euro PM2018 Congress & Exhibition, Bilbao, Spain, 14-18 October, 2018. European Powder Metallurgy Association, EPMA
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Unique material compositions obtained by Electron beam melting of blended powders
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2018 (English)In: Euro PM2018 Proceedings, European Powder Metallurgy Association, EPMA , 2018Conference paper, Published paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

Today powder bed fusion based (PBF) additive manufacturing (AM) methods in metallic materials mainly employ pre-alloyed precursor powders. It was even somehow assumed that in situ alloying of the blended powders will not be effective and such PBF processing will not yield any valuable materials. Recent studies carried out both for laser- and electron beam- based PBF have demonstrated possibilities of using precursors blended from both elemental and alloyed powders. We also demonstrate that composites and alloys indeed can be manufactured from a range of different pre-blended powders with Electron Beam Melting (EBM). It is also possible achieving both composites and alloys by design in different parts of the manufactured components by varying the beam energy deposition strategy. Using sequentially fed precursor powders together with a new powder delivery system also allows manufacturing of the functionally graded materials with gradual composition variation. Blended powder precursors and sequential powder feeding should provide opportunities of manufacturing components with changing composition and material properties in a single manufacturing process. It makes possible modern industrial manufacturing of materials similar to Damascus steels, and other composites and composite-like materials in combinations with alloyed and gradient sections by choice in different parts of components.  

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
European Powder Metallurgy Association, EPMA, 2018
Keywords
powder bed, additive manufacturing, electron beam melting, new materials, powder belnds, composite materials
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35137 (URN)978-1-899072-50-7 (ISBN)
Conference
Euro PM2018 Congress & Exhibition, Bilbao, Spain, 14-18 October, 2018
Available from: 2018-12-10 Created: 2018-12-10 Last updated: 2018-12-11Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2964-9500

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