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Koptioug, A., Popov, V. V. ., Botero Vega, C. A., Jiménez-Piqué, E., Katz-Demyanetz, A., Rännar, L.-E. & Bäckström, M. (2020). Compositionally-tailored steel-based materials manufactured by electron beam melting using blended pre-alloyed powders. Materials Science & Engineering: A, 771, Article ID 138587.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Compositionally-tailored steel-based materials manufactured by electron beam melting using blended pre-alloyed powders
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2020 (English)In: Materials Science & Engineering: A, ISSN 0921-5093, E-ISSN 1873-4936, Vol. 771, article id 138587Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper presents the prospects of additive manufacturing (AM) in metal, using the powder bed fusion (PBF) method Electron Beam Melting (EBM) in fabrication specific steel-based alloys for different applications. The proposed approach includes manufacturing of metals from blended pre-alloyed powders for achieving in situ alloying and the material microstructure tailoring by controlling electron beam energy deposition rate EBM tests were conducted with the blends of 316L stainless steel and Colferoloys 103 and 139, corrosion- and abrasion-resistant iron based materials commonly used for plasma spray coating. Thorough microstructure analysis of the manufactured sample was carried out using electron microscopy and measurements of microhardness and elastic modulus was carried out using nanoindentation. It is concluded that implementation of blended powder pathway in PBF AM allows to widen the scope of available materials through diminishing the dependence on the availability of pre-alloyed powders. Together with beam energy steering this pathway also allows for an effective sample microstructure control at different dimensional scales, resulting in components with unique properties. Therefore, the implementation of ‘blended powder pathway’ in PBF AM provides a possibility of manufacturing components with the composite-like and homogeneous zones allowing for the microstructure control and effectively adding a “4th dimension” to “3D printing". 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Blended powder, EBM, Electron beam melting, Graded material, In situ alloying
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37689 (URN)10.1016/j.msea.2019.138587 (DOI)000503324700020 ()2-s2.0-85074019741 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-11-15 Created: 2019-11-15 Last updated: 2020-01-16Bibliographically approved
Botero, C., Bäckström, M., Rännar, L.-E., Roos, S., Koptyug, A., Åsvik, K., . . . Ramsperger, M. (2019). Additive Manufacturing of a cold work steel using Electron Beam Melting. In: Proceedings of Conference:  Tooling 2019: . Paper presented at Tooling 2019, Aachen, May 2019. , May
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing of a cold work steel using Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Proceedings of Conference:  Tooling 2019, 2019, Vol. MayConference paper, Oral presentation with published abstract (Refereed)
Keywords
Additive Manufacturing, steel, Electron Beam Melting
National Category
Other Engineering and Technologies not elsewhere specified Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37955 (URN)
Conference
Tooling 2019, Aachen, May 2019
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2019-12-12Bibliographically approved
Botero Vega, C. A., Ramsperger, M., Selte, A., Åsvik, K., Koptioug, A., Skoglund, P., . . . Bäckström, M. (2019). Additive Manufacturing of a Cold-Work Tool Steel using Electron Beam Melting. Steel Research International, 1-6, Article ID 1900448.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive Manufacturing of a Cold-Work Tool Steel using Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Steel Research International, ISSN 1611-3683, E-ISSN 1869-344X, p. 1-6, article id 1900448Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Metal additive manufacturing (AM) is on its way to industrialization. One of the most promising techniques within this field, electron beam melting (EBM), is nowadays used mostly for the fabrication of high‐performance Ti‐based alloy components for the aerospace and medical industry. Among the industrial applications envisioned for the future of EBM, the fabrication of high carbon steels for the tooling industry is of great interest. In this context, the process windows for dense and crack‐free specimens for a highly alloyed (Cr–Mo–V) cold‐work steel powder are presented in this article. High‐solidification rates during EBM processing lead to very fine and homogeneous microstructures. The influence of process parameters on the resulting microstructure and the chemical composition is investigated. In addition, preliminary results show very promising mechanical properties regarding the as‐built and heat‐treated microstructure of the obtained material.

National Category
Other Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-38162 (URN)10.1002/srin.201900448 (DOI)2-s2.0-85075934124 (Scopus ID)
Funder
Interreg Sweden-Norway, 20201562
Available from: 2019-12-20 Created: 2019-12-20 Last updated: 2020-02-21Bibliographically approved
Popov, V. V. ., Muller-Kamskii, G., Katz-Demyanetz, A., Kovalevsky, A., Usov, S., Trofimcow, D., . . . Koptioug, A. (2019). Additive manufacturing to veterinary practice: recovery of bony defects after the osteosarcoma resection in canines. BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LETTERS, 9(1), 97-108
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Additive manufacturing to veterinary practice: recovery of bony defects after the osteosarcoma resection in canines
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2019 (English)In: BIOMEDICAL ENGINEERING LETTERS, ISSN 2093-9868, Vol. 9, no 1, p. 97-108Article, review/survey (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The paper outlines the achievements and challenges in the additive manufacturing (AM) application to veterinary practice. The state-of-the-art in AM application to the veterinary surgery is presented, with the focus of AM for patient-specific implants manufacturing. It also provides critical discussion on some of the potential issues design and technology should overcome for wider and more effective implementation of additively manufactured parts in veterinary practices. Most of the discussions in present paper are related to the metallic implants, manufactured in this case using so-called powder bed additive manufacturing (PB-AM) in titanium alloy Ti-6AL-4V, and to the corresponding process of their design, manufacturing and implementation in veterinary surgery. Procedures of the implant design and individualization for veterinary surgery are illustrated basing on the four performed surgery cases with dog patients. Results of the replacement surgery in dogs indicate that individualized additively manufactured metallic implants significantly increase chances for successful recovery process, and AM techniques present a viable alternative to amputation in a large number of veterinary cases. The same time overcoming challenges of implant individualization in veterinary practice significantly contributes to the knowledge directly relevant to the modern medical practice. An experience from veterinary cases where organ-preserving surgery with 3D-printed patient-specific implants is performed provides a unique opportunity for future development of better human implants.

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Ti-6Al-4V, Implants, Veterinary applications of 3D printing, Clinical cases, Osteosarcoma, Dogs
National Category
Biomedical Laboratory Science/Technology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36157 (URN)10.1007/s13534-018-00092-7 (DOI)000462195200009 ()30956883 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85063445924 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-05-20 Created: 2019-05-20 Last updated: 2019-05-23Bibliographically approved
Chudinova, E. A., Surmeneva, M. A., Timin, A. S., Karpov, T. E., Wittmar, A., Ulbricht, M., . . . Surmenev, R. A. (2019). Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, 176, 130-139
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Adhesion, proliferation, and osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells on additively manufactured Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds modified with calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, ISSN 0927-7765, E-ISSN 1873-4367, Vol. 176, p. 130-139Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

In the present study, biocomposites based on 3D porous additively manufactured Ti6Al4V (Ti64) scaffolds modified with biocompatible calcium phosphate nanoparticles (CaPNPs) were investigated. Ti64 scaffolds were manufactured via electron beam melting technology using an Arcam machine. Electrophoretic deposition was used to modify the scaffolds with CaPNPs, which were synthesized by precipitation in the presence of polyethyleneimine (PEI). Dynamic light scattering revealed that the CaP/PEI nanoparticles had an average size of 46 ± 18 nm and a zeta potential of +22 ± 9 mV. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) revealed that the obtained spherical CaPNPs had an average diameter of approximately 90 nm. The titanium-based scaffolds coated with CaPNPs exhibited improved hydrophilic surface properties, with a water contact angle below 5°. Cultivation of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on the CaPNPs-coated Ti64 scaffolds indicated that the improved hydrophilicity was beneficial for the attachment and growth of cells in vitro. The Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffold supported an increase in the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of cells. In addition to the favourable cell proliferation and differentiation, Ti6Al4V/CaPNPs scaffolds displayed increased mineralization compared to non-coated Ti6Al4V scaffolds. Thus, the developed composite 3D scaffolds of Ti6Al4V functionalized with CaPNPs are promising materials for different applications related to bone repair. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Calcium phosphate, Cell adhesion, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles, Proliferation in vivo, Scaffold, Surface properties
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35415 (URN)10.1016/j.colsurfb.2018.12.047 (DOI)000465051800016 ()30597410 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85059137646 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-01-10 Created: 2019-01-10 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Surmeneva, M., Lapanje, A., Chudinova, E., Ivanova, A., Koptioug, A., Loza, K., . . . Surmenev, R. (2019). Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles. Applied Surface Science, 480, 822-829
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Decreased bacterial colonization of additively manufactured Ti6Al4V metallic scaffolds with immobilized silver and calcium phosphate nanoparticles
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2019 (English)In: Applied Surface Science, ISSN 0169-4332, E-ISSN 1873-5584, Vol. 480, p. 822-829Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The design of an ideal bone graft substitute has been a long-standing effort, and a number of strategies have been developed to improve bone regeneration. Electron beam melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing method allowing for the production of porous implants with highly defined external dimensions and internal architectures. The increasing surface area of the implant may also increase the abilities of pathogenic microorganisms to adhere to the surfaces and form a biofilm, which may result in serious complications. The aim of this study was to explore the modifications of Ti6Al4V alloy scaffolds to reduce the abilities of bacteria to attach to the EBM-manufactured implant surface. The layers composed of silver (Ag), calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles (NPs) and combinations of both were formed on the EBM-fabricated metallic scaffolds by electrophoretic deposition in order to provide them with antimicrobial properties. The assay of bacterial colonization on the surface was performed with the exposure of scaffold surfaces to Staphylococcus aureus cells for up to 17 h. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used to assess the relationships between different surface features of the studied samples and bacterial adhesion. The results indicate that by modifying the implant surface with appropriate nanostructures that change the hydrophobicity and the surface roughness at the nano scale, physical cues are provided that disrupt bacterial adhesion. Our results clearly show that AgNPs at a concentration of approximately 0.02 mg/сm 2 that were deposited together with CaPNPs covered by positively charge polyethylenimine (PEI) on the surface of EBM-sintered Ti6Al4V scaffolds hindered bacterial growth, as the total number of attached cells (NAC) of S. aureus remained at the same level during the 17 h of exposure, which indicates bacteriostatic activity. 

Keywords
Additive manufacturing, Antimicrobial assay, Bacteriostatic activity, Electron beam melting, Electrophoretic deposition, Nanoparticles
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-35863 (URN)10.1016/j.apsusc.2019.03.003 (DOI)000463008200092 ()2-s2.0-85062680211 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-03-25 Created: 2019-03-25 Last updated: 2019-05-22Bibliographically approved
Chudinova, E., Surmeneva, M., Koptioug, A., Sokolova, V., Prymak, O., Bouckercha, S., . . . Surmenev, R. (2019). Determination of the properties and loading efficiency of encapsulated BSA-FITC and dexamethasone for drug delivery systems. In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering. Paper presented at 16th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2019, Tomsk, Russian Federation, 23 April 2019 through 26 April 2019. Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 597(1), Article ID 012056.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Determination of the properties and loading efficiency of encapsulated BSA-FITC and dexamethasone for drug delivery systems
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2019 (English)In: IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019, Vol. 597, no 1, article id 012056Conference paper (Refereed)
Abstract [en]

In this work porous microparticles of calcium carbonate were synthesized with bovine serum albumin - fluorescein isothiocyanate conjugate (BSA-FITC) and dexamethasone, and then used for encapsulation in polymer microcapsules by means of layer-by-layer assembly (LbL). The properties of the obtained microcapsules were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, infrared-, ultraviolet- and visible spectroscopy. According to the performed DLS measurements, an average hydrodynamic diameter ranged from 4 to 8 m and zeta-potential for all types of capsules was determined as -18 and -21 mV. BSA-FITC was encapsulated using this approach yielded a loading efficiency of 49 % protein. This value calculated for dexamethasone was of 38%. The microcapsules filled with an encapsulated drug may find applications in the field of biotechnology, biochemistry, and medicine. 

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Institute of Physics Publishing (IOPP), 2019
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37679 (URN)10.1088/1757-899X/597/1/012056 (DOI)2-s2.0-85073635032 (Scopus ID)
Conference
16th International Conference of Students and Young Scientists on Prospects of Fundamental Sciences Development, PFSD 2019, Tomsk, Russian Federation, 23 April 2019 through 26 April 2019
Available from: 2019-11-14 Created: 2019-11-14 Last updated: 2019-11-14Bibliographically approved
Petrone, N., Candiotto, G., Marzella, E., Uriati, F., Carraro, G., Bäckström, M. & Koptyug, A. (2019). Feasibility of using a novel instrumented human head surrogate to measure helmet, head and brain kinematics and intracranial pressure during multidirectional impact tests. Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, 22(S1), S78-S84
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Feasibility of using a novel instrumented human head surrogate to measure helmet, head and brain kinematics and intracranial pressure during multidirectional impact tests
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2019 (English)In: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport, ISSN 1440-2440, E-ISSN 1878-1861, Vol. 22, no S1, p. S78-S84Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objectives: Aim of the work is to present the feasibility of using an Instrumented Human Head Surrogate (IHHS-1) during multidirectional impacts while wearing a modern ski helmet. The IHHS-1 is intended to provide reliable and repeatable data for the experimental validation of FE models and for the experimental evaluation of modern helmets designed to enhance the degree of protection against multidirectional impacts. Design: The new IHHS-1 includes 9 triaxial MEMS accelerometers embedded in a silicone rubber brain, independently molded and presenting lobes separation and cerebellum, placed into an ABS skull filled with surrogate cerebrospinal fluid. A triaxial MEMS gyroscope is placed at the brain center of mass. Intracranial pressure can be detected by eight pressure sensors applied to the skull internal surface along a transversal plane located at the brain center of mass and two at the apex. Additional MEMS sensors positioned over the skull and the helmet allow comparison between outer and inner structure kinematics and surrogate CSF pressure behavior. Methods: The IHHS-1 was mounted through a Hybrid III neck on a force platform and impacted with a striker connected to a pendulum tower, with the impact energies reaching 24J. Impact locations were aligned with the brain center of mass and located in the back (sagittal axis), right (90° from sagittal axis), back/right (45°), and front right (135°) locations. Following dynamic data were collected: values of the linear accelerations and angular velocities of the brain, skull and helmet; intracranial pressures inside the skull. Results: Despite the relatively low intensity of impacts (HIC at skull max value 46), the skull rotational actions reached BrIC values of 0.33 and angular accelerations of 5216 rad/s2, whereas brain angular acceleration resulted between 1,44 and 2,1 times lower with similar values of BrIC. Conclusions: The IHHS-1 is a physical head surrogate that can produce repeatable data for the interpretation of inner structures behavior during multidirectional impacts with or without helmets of different characteristics. 

Keywords
Accelerometers, Angular velocity, Helmet evaluation, Human head, Intracranial pressure, Surrogate
National Category
Materials Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-36704 (URN)10.1016/j.jsams.2019.05.015 (DOI)000493587000016 ()31272916 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-85068078314 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-07-10 Created: 2019-07-10 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Laptev, R., Pushilina, N., Kashkarov, E., Syrtanov, M., Stepanova, E., Koptyug, A. & Lider, A. (2019). Influence of beam current on microstructure of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy. Progress in Natural Science, 29(4), 440-446
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Influence of beam current on microstructure of electron beam melted Ti-6Al-4V alloy
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2019 (English)In: Progress in Natural Science, ISSN 1002-0071, E-ISSN 1745-5391, Vol. 29, no 4, p. 440-446Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The defect microstructure of the samples manufactured from Ti-6Al-4V powder was studied using electron beam melting (EBM) in the beam current range of 17 - 13 mA. The hybrid digital complex combined positron lifetime spectroscopy and coincidence Doppler broadening spectroscopy was used to characterize the defect structure of the materials. The microstructure and defects were also analyzed by transmission electron microscopy. It has been established that the main type of the defects in the EBM manufactured samples is dislocations. According to the conducted measurements and calculations, the dislocation density in the EBM manufactured samples exceeds by two orders the similar value for the cast Ti-6Al-4Valloy. Formation of Ti-Ti-Al nanoscale clusters has been found in the EBM manufactured samples.

Keywords
Titanium alloy, Additive technology, Electron beam melting, Positron spectroscopy, Defects, Transmission electron microscopy
National Category
Metallurgy and Metallic Materials Other Materials Engineering Energy Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37958 (URN)10.1016/j.pnsc.2019.04.011 (DOI)000496914300011 ()2-s2.0-85071277495 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-11 Created: 2019-12-11 Last updated: 2020-02-20Bibliographically approved
Roos, S., Botero Vega, C. A., Danvind, J., Koptioug, A. & Rännar, L.-E. (2019). Macro- and Micromechanical Behavior of 316LN Lattice Structures Manufactured by Electron Beam Melting. Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), 28(12), 7290-7301
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Macro- and Micromechanical Behavior of 316LN Lattice Structures Manufactured by Electron Beam Melting
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2019 (English)In: Journal of materials engineering and performance (Print), ISSN 1059-9495, E-ISSN 1544-1024, Vol. 28, no 12, p. 7290-7301Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

This work focuses on the possibility of processing stainless steel 316LN powder into lightweight structures using electron beam melting and investigates mechanical and microstructural properties in the material of processed components. Lattice structures conforming to ISO13314:2011 were manufactured using varying process parameters. Microstructure was examined using a scanning electron microscope. Compression testing was used to understand the effect of process parameters on the lattice mechanical properties, and nanoindentation was used to determine the material hardness. Lattices manufactured from 316L using EBM show smooth compression characteristics without collapsing layers and shear planes. The material has uniform hardness in strut shear planes, a microstructure resembling that of solid 316LN material but with significantly finer grain size, although slightly coarser sub-grain size. Grains appear to be growing along the lattice struts (e.g., along the heat transfer direction) and not in the build direction. Energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy analysis reveals boundary precipitates with increased levels of chromium, molybdenum and silicon. Studies clearly show that the 316LN grains in the material microstructure are elongated along the dominating heat transfer paths, which may or may not coincide with the build direction. Lattices made from a relatively ductile material, like 316LN, are much less susceptible to catastrophic collapse and show an extended range of elastic and plastic deformation. Tests indicate that EBM process for 316LN is stable allowing for both solid and lightweight (lattice) structures.

Keywords
316L additive manufacturing electron beam melting ISO 13314:2011 lattice nanoindentation
National Category
Other Mechanical Engineering Other Mechanical Engineering
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-37818 (URN)10.1007/s11665-019-04484-3 (DOI)000507536600012 ()2-s2.0-85075894379 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2019-12-02 Created: 2019-12-02 Last updated: 2020-01-31Bibliographically approved
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Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2964-9500

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