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Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E., Almqvist, Y. B. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2017). A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 76(1), Article ID 1396146.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>A non-randomised pragmatic trial of a school-based group cognitive-behavioural programme for preventing depression in girls
2017 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 1239-9736, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 76, no 1, article id 1396146Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of the DISA-programme in preventing depressive symptoms (DS) in adolescent girls, as implemented in a real-world school setting, accounting for baseline socioeconomic and psychosocial factors, and to investigate whether the effects of these baseline variables on DS differed between intervention participants and non-participants. In this non-randomised pragmatic trial, an electronic questionnaire was disseminated in 2011 (baseline) and 2012 (follow-up) in schools in one municipality in northern Sweden. Pupils (total n=275; intervention participants identified in the questionnaire: n=53; non-partici-pants: n=222) were 14–15 years old at baseline. The groups were compared by means of SEM. DISA could not predict differences in DS at follow-up in this real-life setting. In the overall sample, sexual harassment victimisation (SH) at baseline was associated with DS at follow-up and the estimate for SH increased in the DISA-participants compared to the overall sample.

Keywords
School, depressive symptoms, real-life setting, pragmatic trial, cognitive-behavioural, sexual harassment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-29189 (URN)10.1080/22423982.2017.1396146 (DOI)000417206200001 ()2-s2.0-85045666575 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-11-04 Created: 2016-11-04 Last updated: 2018-05-16Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E., Young, R. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2016). Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(5), 858-873
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Dimensions of Peer Sexual Harassment Victimization and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescence: A Longitudinal Cross-Lagged Study in a Swedish Sample
2016 (English)In: Journal of Youth and Adolescence, ISSN 0047-2891, E-ISSN 1573-6601, Vol. 45, no 5, p. 858-873Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Sexual harassment is commonly considered unwanted sexual attention and a form of gender-based violence that can take physical, verbal and visual forms and it is assumed to cause later depression in adolescents. There is a dearth of research explicitly testing this assumption and the directional pathway remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to use a feminist theoretical framework to test competing models in respect of the direction of the relationships between dimensions of peer sexual harassment victimization and dimensions of depressive symptoms from ages 14 to 16 in adolescents. The study also aimed to investigate gender differences in these pathways. Cross-lagged models were conducted using a three-wave (2010, 2011 and 2012) longitudinal study of 2330 students (51 % females) from Sweden, adjusted for social background. Girls subjected to sexual harassment in grade seven continued to experience sexual harassment the following 2 years. There was weaker evidence of repeated experience of sexual harassment among boys. Depressive symptoms were stable over time in both genders. Sexual name-calling was the dimension that had the strongest associations to all dimensions of depressive symptoms irrespective of gender. In girls, name-calling was associated with later somatic symptoms and negative affect, while anhedonia (reduced ability to experience pleasure) preceded later name-calling. Physical sexual harassment had a reciprocal relationship to somatic symptoms in girls. In boys, name-calling was preceded by all dimensions of depressive symptoms. It is an urgent matter to prevent sexual harassment victimization, as it is most likely to both cause depressive symptoms or a reciprocal cycle of victimization and depression symptoms in girls as well as boys.

Keywords
Sexual harassment Depressive symptoms Adolescence Directional pathways Gender differences
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-27138 (URN)10.1007/s10964-016-0446-x (DOI)000374067000003 ()26910524 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84959097241 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2016-02-29 Created: 2016-02-29 Last updated: 2017-08-09Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E., Young, R. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2015). Causal pathways of sexual harassment and depressive symptoms in adolescence. In: : . Paper presented at The 8th European Public Health Conference – from global to local policies, methods and practices, 16-17 october, Milan, Italy.
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Causal pathways of sexual harassment and depressive symptoms in adolescence
2015 (English)Conference paper, Poster (with or without abstract) (Other academic)
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26146 (URN)
Conference
The 8th European Public Health Conference – from global to local policies, methods and practices, 16-17 october, Milan, Italy
Available from: 2015-10-27 Created: 2015-10-27 Last updated: 2015-10-28Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2015). What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden. International Journal of Circumpolar Health, 74, 29805
Open this publication in new window or tab >>What students do schools allocate to a cognitive-behavioural intervention?: Characteristics of adolescent participants in Northern Sweden
2015 (English)In: International Journal of Circumpolar Health, ISSN 2242-3982, E-ISSN 2242-3982, Vol. 74, p. 29805-Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background. Adolescents are a vulnerable group when it comes to the risk of developing depression. Preventing the onset of depressive episodes in this group is therefore a major public health priority. In the last decades, school-based cognitive-behavioural interventions have been a common primary prevention approach. However, evidence on what girls actually are allocated to such interventions when no researchers are involved is scarce.

Objective. To explore how a selective cognitive-behavioural program (Depression In Swedish Adolescents) developed to prevent depression in adolescents, was implemented in a naturalistic setting in schools in northern part of Sweden. The focus was on characteristics of participants allocated to the intervention.

Design. Cross-sectional baseline data on depressive symptoms, school environment and socio-economic factors were collected in 2011 by means of questionnaires in schools in a municipality in the northern part of Sweden. Intervention participants were identified in a follow-up questionnaire in 2012. Students (n=288) included in the analyses were in the ages of 14–15.

Results. Sixty-six girls and no boys were identified as intervention participants. They reported higher levels of depressive symptoms, lower personal relative affluence, more sexual harassment victimization and less peer support compared to female non-participants (n=222). Intervention participants were more likely to attend schools with a higher proportion of low parental education levels and a lower proportion of students graduating with a diploma.

Conclusions. The developers of the intervention originally intended the program to be universal or selective, but it was implemented as targeted in these schools. It is important for school administrations to adhere to program fidelity when it comes to what students it is aimed for. Implications for effectivenss trials of cognitive-behavioural interventions in the school setting is discussed.

Keywords
cognitive-behavioural interventions, school-based, selective interventions, depressive symptoms, naturalistic setting; psychosocial factors, sexual harassment
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-26203 (URN)10.3402/ijch.v74.29805 (DOI)000363987000001 ()26538463 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-84946600635 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2015-11-03 Created: 2015-11-03 Last updated: 2017-12-01Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E. & Persson, S. (2014). Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 42(4), 393-399
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Bullying, cyberbullying, and mental health in young people
2014 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 42, no 4, p. 393-399Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Objective: To investigate the factors associated with exposure to in-real-life (IRL) bullying, cyberbullying, and both IRL and cyberbullying and to explore the relationship between these types of bullying and mental health among 13-16-year-old Swedish boys and girls. Methods: Data was derived from a cross-sectional web-based study of 13-16-year-old students in northern Sweden (n=1214, response rate 81.9%). Results: The combination of IRL- and cyberbullying was the most common type of bullying. A non-supportive school environment and poor body image were related to exposure to bullying for both genders but the relationship was more distinct in girls. All types of bullying were associated with depressive symptoms in both boys and girls and all forms of bullying increased the likelihood of psychosomatic problems in girls. Conclusions: Cyberbullying can be seen as an extension of IRL bullying. A combination of IRL- and cyberbullying seems to be particularly negative for mental health. Interventions should focus on improved school environment and body image as well as anti-violence programmes. Gender aspects of bullying need to be acknowledged.

Keywords
Adolescents, body image, bullying, depressive symptoms, online harassment, psychosocial school environment, psychosomatic problems
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology Human Aspects of ICT
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-22596 (URN)10.1177/1403494814525004 (DOI)000336795300009 ()2-s2.0-84901289091 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2014-08-19 Created: 2014-08-19 Last updated: 2017-12-05Bibliographically approved
Zetterström Dahlqvist, H., Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2012). Depressive symptoms and the associations with individual, psychosocial, and structural determinants in Swedish adolescents. Health, 4(10), 881-889
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Depressive symptoms and the associations with individual, psychosocial, and structural determinants in Swedish adolescents
2012 (English)In: Health, ISSN 1949-5005, Vol. 4, no 10, p. 881-889Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Depressive symptoms in adolescents are an in-creasing public health issue in Sweden and in most Western countries. Aim: To explore how individual, psychosocial, and structural deter-minants are associated with depressive symp-toms in Swedish adolescents. Methods: A web- based questionnaire was answered by 1193 13- to 16-year-old boys (n = 566) and girls (n = 627). Stepwise logistic regressions were employed to analyse the association between depressive sym- ptoms and various determinants at the individ-ual level (self-efficacy), the psychosocial level (parental, peer, and teacher support, school de-mands, sexual harassment, and bullying) and the structural level (family affluence, having less money than friends, and parental foreign back-ground). Results: Determinants at the individual, psychosocial, and structural levels were inde-pendently associated with high levels of depres-sive symptoms in both boys and girls. The full model explained a high proportion of the vari-ance in depressive symptoms in both genders; 34.1% in boys and 36.8% in girls. The psycho-social level contributed the most to explaining the variance in depressive symptoms in boys. In girls, when harassment variables were separated from psychosocial variables, the harassment var- iables contributed as much to the full model as the rest of the psychosocial variables combined. Conclusions: Addressing psychosocial determi-nants provides the greatest benefits for prevent-ing depressive symptoms in adolescents. Ac-knowledging the association between sexual harassment and depressive symptoms for girls and having less money than their friends for boys and girls are particularly important.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Irvine, CA: Scientific Research Publishing, 2012
Keywords
Mental health, Individual determinants, psychosocial determinants, structural determinants, socioeconomic factors, gender, harassment, social support, school, adolesence
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-17303 (URN)10.4236/health.2012.410134 (DOI)
Available from: 2012-11-02 Created: 2012-11-01 Last updated: 2016-11-07Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2012). Seventeen and Stressed – Do Gender and Class Matter?. Health Sociology Review, 21(1), 82-98
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Seventeen and Stressed – Do Gender and Class Matter?
2012 (English)In: Health Sociology Review, ISSN 1446-1242, E-ISSN 1839-3551, Vol. 21, no 1, p. 82-98Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Despite increasing concerns about stress levels in adolescents, knowledge is scarce about what boys and girls from different social backgrounds find stressful. This cross-sectional study explored gender and class patterning of perceived stress and reported stressors in a sample of 1,663 17-year-old Swedish students. The students, especially girls, were highly stressed. No class difference (indicated by educational programme) was found. Performance-related stressors (e.g. school work) and stress due to pressure on looks was mainly patterned by gender (girls), whilst relational stressors were patterned by class (vocational programme students). There was a complex gender and class patterning of stress due to school work and lack of money. The interplay of gender and class inequalities should be acknowledged in identifying determinants of stress in young people. Challenging normative ideals and implementing policies aiming at reducing gender and class inequalities are central components for stress-reducing interventions in, for example, schools.

Keywords
perceived stress; stressors; femininity; masculinity; social class; intersectionality; adolescents; school
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10738 (URN)10.5172/hesr.2012.21.1.82 (DOI)000303029600008 ()2-s2.0-84863193787 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-12-18 Created: 2009-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2011). Deliberate self-harm and associated factors in 17-year-old Swedish students. Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, 39(1), 17-25
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Deliberate self-harm and associated factors in 17-year-old Swedish students
2011 (English)In: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1403-4948, E-ISSN 1651-1905, Vol. 39, no 1, p. 17-25Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Background: Deliberate self-harm (DSH) in young people is an important public health issue. To prevent DSH, more knowledge is needed about its prevalence and associated contextual factors in community samples of adolescents. Aims: To determine the prevalence of deliberate self-harm in 17-year-old Swedish students and to explore the association of demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors with DSH. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional study in which 17-year-old students completed questionnaires during school hours (n=1,663; 78.3%). The variables used in this analysis are as follows: deliberate self-harm, demographic variables, psychological distress, experiences of violence, and school-related factors. Data were analysed using chi-squared statistics and logistic regression. Results: The lifetime prevalence of DSH was 17%, and it was more common among girls (23.3%) than boys (10.5%). There were considerable socioeconomic differences in reports of DSH. Psychological distress was strongly associated with DSH in both boys and girls, as were experiences of bullying, sexual harassment, physical violence and sexual assault. Social support, safety and academic factors in school were related to reports of DSH in both girls and boys. There were some gender differences with respect to which factors were associated with DSH. Conclusions: Deliberate self-harm is common and more frequently reported by girls than boys. Psychological distress, experiences of different types of violence, and school-related factors (academic, social and safety-related), should be considered risk factors for DSH in young people. Findings can be applied to health-promotion policy and interventions in various contexts, for example schools.

Keywords
Adolescents, community survey, deliberate self-harm, mental health, non-suicidal self-injury, risk factors, school
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11980 (URN)10.1177/1403494810382941 (DOI)000286610700004 ()2-s2.0-79952267123 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2010-09-17 Created: 2010-09-16 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E. & Gillander Gådin, K. (2011). Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress. International Journal of Public Health, 56(4), 419-427
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Experiences of violence among adolescents: gender patterns in types, perpetrators and associated psychological distress
2011 (English)In: International Journal of Public Health, ISSN 1661-8556, E-ISSN 1661-8564, Vol. 56, no 4, p. 419-427Article in journal (Refereed) Published
Abstract [en]

Purpose: To explore the psychological distress associations of experiences of several types of violence and the victim-perpetrator relationship of physical violence, a gender analysis was applied. Methods: Data were derived from a cross-sectional questionnaire study among 17-year-old upper secondary school students (N = 1,663). Variables in focus were: self-reported psychological distress, experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment. Logistic regressions were used to examine associations. Results: Experiences of physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment were associated with psychological distress in boys and girls. The perpetrators of physical violence were predominately males. Whether the perpetrator was unknown or known to the victim seem to be linked to psychological distress. Victimisation by a boyfriend was strongly related to psychological distress among girls. Conclusions: Experiences of several types of violence should be highlighted as factors associated with mental health problems in adolescents. The victim-perpetrator relationships of violence are gendered and likely influence the psychological distress association. Gendered hierarchies and norms likely influence the extent to which adolescents experience violence and how they respond to it in terms of psychological distress.

Keywords
Victimisation; young people; mental health; gender differences; public health
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-10737 (URN)10.1007/s00038-011-0258-4 (DOI)000293187600008 ()21544531 (PubMedID)2-s2.0-80755138426 (Scopus ID)
Available from: 2009-12-18 Created: 2009-12-18 Last updated: 2017-12-12Bibliographically approved
Landstedt, E. (2010). Life circumstances and adolescent mental health: Perceptions, associations and a gender analysis. (Doctoral dissertation). Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University
Open this publication in new window or tab >>Life circumstances and adolescent mental health: Perceptions, associations and a gender analysis
2010 (English)Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
Abstract [en]

Despite a well-documented gender pattern of adolescent mental health, public health research investigating possible influencing factors from a gender-theoretical approach is scarce. This study aimed to explore what factors and circumstances are related to adolescent mental health and to apply a gender analysis to the findings in order to improve the understanding of the relationships between life circumstances and the gendered patterning of mental health among young people.

 

The study population was 16-19-year-old Swedish students and data was collected by means of focus groups (N=29) and self-administered questionnaires (N=1,663, 78.3% response rate) in school settings. Mental health problems were defined in a broad sense including the adolescents’ own understandings, perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm.

 

The mental health problems of perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm were twice as common among girls as boys. The findings suggest that adolescent mental health is associated with the life circumstances of social relationships, demands and responsibility taking and experiences of violence and harassment.  Supportive relationships with friends, family and teachers were found to be of importance to positive mental health, whereas poor social relationships, loneliness and lack of influence were associated with mental health problems.  Perceived demands and responsibility taking regarding school work, relationships, future plans, appearance and financial issues were strongly related to mental health problems, particularly among girls regardless of social class. The results indicate that physical violence, sexual assault, bullying and sexual harassment are severe risk factors for mental health problems in young people. Boys and girls experienced different types of violence, and the victim-perpetrator relationships of physical violence differed. These diverging experiences appeared to influence the associations with mental health problems in boys and girls.

 

A gender analysis provides the tools to gain knowledge about the ways that boys’ and girls’ lives are shaped by gender relations and constructions at different levels in society and how these life circumstances represent risk- or protective factors for mental health. For example, unequal power structures and the ways girls are expected to ‘do’ femininity likely influence their life circumstances in ways that place them at greater risk of mental health problems. Hegemonic constructions of masculinity and advantaged positions likely contribute to life circumstances that are positive for mental health but are also implying risk factors for poor mental health among boys, e.g., violence. It is also important to recognise how the intertwined cultural and structural aspects of gender and social class influence the lives and mental health of boys and girls. In conclusion, gendered and class-related mechanisms at the different levels in society influence the distribution of risk factors unevenly among boys and girls, which could be a possible explanation for the gender differences in reports of perceived stress, psychological distress and deliberate self-harm.

 

The likelihood of gender and socioeconomic differences in mental health problems should be taken into account in prevention and health promotion strategies at all levels in society. A greater awareness about gender relations and the gendered social circumstances under which young people live is required. The school environment is an important arena with respect to prevention and health promotion. There is also a need for a joint action against violence and harassment at all levels in society. Implications do not only concern young people; social policy and legislation should focus on reducing gender and class inequalities in general.

Abstract [sv]

Sammanfattning

Svensk titel: Livsvillkor och ungdomars psykiska hälsa: uppfattningar, associationer och en genusanalys.

 

Trots ett väldokumenterat genusmönster i ungdomars psykiska hälsa finns det en kunskapslucka i den folkhälsovetenskapliga forskningen avseende genusteoretiska analyser av sambanden mellan ungas livsvillkor och psykisk hälsa. Föreliggande studie syftade till att undersöka vilka faktorer och omständigheter som är relaterade till psykiska problem, samt att analysera fynden ur ett genusperspektiv för att fördjupa förståelsen av relationerna mellan ungas livsvillkor och genusmönster i psykiska hälsa.

 

Studiepopulationen var gymnasielever i åldern 16-19 år. Studien genomfördes i skolmiljö och data insamlades genom fokusgrupper (N=29) och en enkätstudie (N=1,663, 78.3% svarsfrekvens). En bred definition av psykisk ohälsa tillämpades vilken representerades av ungdomarnas egen förståelse, samt de psykiska problemen upplevd stress, psykiska besvär samt självskadebeteende.

 

Resultaten visade att stress, psykiska besvär och självskadebeteende var dubbelt så vanligt bland flickor som bland pojkar. Psykiska problem var relaterade till livsvillkoren sociala relationer, krav och ansvarstagande samt utsatthet för våld och trakasserier. Stödjande relationer med vänner, familj och lärare var av stor betydelse för psykisk hälsa medan dåliga relationer, ensamhet och brist på inflytande var relaterat till psykiska problem. Psykiska problem var starkt kopplade till erfarenheter av höga krav och ansvarstagande avseende skolarbete, relationer, framtidsplaner, utseende och ekonomi, i synnerhet bland flickor oavsett socioekonomisk bakgrund. Resultaten indikerar att olika former av våld och trakasserier är allvarliga riskfaktorer för psykiska problem och att flickors och pojkars skiljda erfarenheter av olika former av våld samt relationen till förövaren, kan vara relaterade till skillnader i psykiska problem.

 

Genusanalysen av resultaten föreslår att flickors livsvillkor påverkas av ojämlika maktstrukturer och konstruktioner av femininitet och att dessa livsvillkor bidrar till en ökad risk för psykisk ohälsa bland flickor. Livsvillkor kopplade till manlig överordning och hegemoniska konstruktioner av maskulinitet influerar sannolikt pojkars psykiska hälsa positivt. Dessa villkor kan dock också innebära risk faktorer för psykiska problem, t.ex. i fråga om våld. Studien uppmärksammar även hur kulturella och strukturella aspekter av både genus och social klass kan påverka livsvillkor och psykisk hälsa för pojkar och flickor. Studiens slutsats är att genusifierade och klassrelaterade mekanismer på olika nivåer i samhället bidrar till en skev fördelning av riskfaktorer för psykiska problem vilket kan vara en möjlig förklaring till skillnaderna mellan pojkar och flickor i fråga om upplevd stress, psykiska besvär och självskadebeteende.

 

Genus- och socioekonomiska skillnader i psykiska problem bör tas i beaktande i preventivt och hälsofrämjande arbete på alla nivåer i samhället. Detsamma gäller för en ökad medvetenhet om hur ungas livsvillkor är relaterade till psykisk hälsa och hur dessa villkor är genus- och klassrelaterade. Studien uppmärksammar skolan som en viktig arena för preventivt och hälsofrämjande arbete samt att gemensamma insatser krävs på olika arenor för att motverka våld och trakasserier. Implikationer av studien omfattar även generella samhällspolitiska insatser för minskad ojämlikhet.

Nyckelord: Stress; psykiska besvär; självskadebeteende; gymnasieelever; maskulinitet; femininitet; sociala determinanter; sociala relationer; krav; ansvarstagande; våld och trakasserier; skola.

Place, publisher, year, edition, pages
Sundsvall: Mid Sweden University, 2010. p. 96
Series
Mid Sweden University doctoral thesis, ISSN 1652-893X ; 93
Keywords
Stress; Psychological distress; Deliberate self-harm; Students; masculinity, femininity; social determinants; social relationships; demands; responsibility taking; violence and harassment; school.
National Category
Public Health, Global Health, Social Medicine and Epidemiology
Identifiers
urn:nbn:se:miun:diva-11982 (URN)978-91-86073-89-3 (ISBN)
Public defence
2010-12-17, M108, Campus Sundsvall, Sundsvall, 10:30 (Swedish)
Opponent
Supervisors
Note
Forskarutbildningsämne: Hälsovetenskap. Available from: 2010-10-20 Created: 2010-09-17 Last updated: 2010-11-29Bibliographically approved
Organisations
Identifiers
ORCID iD: ORCID iD iconorcid.org/0000-0003-2996-3348

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