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  • Andrén Eggeborn, Therése
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Ökad förståelse för relationen mellan elektronisk handel och hållbarhet: En fallstudie gjord på svenska, exporterande B2B företag i Malaysia2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 poäng / 30 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    Introduction: Sustainability issues are getting more and more attention. A common framework for working with sustainability is based on the three dimensions of social sustainability, environmental sustainability and economic sustainability. The goal of the sustainability model is to achieve a balance between the dimensions. Although sustainability models have been known for decades, companies find it difficult to strike a balance, as the economic dimension tends to set the agenda for the other two. Consequently, it seems easier to work with sustainability in theory than in practice. One reason for this may be that the companies have many stakeholders to consider. The digital infrastructure is making the market more and more global.

     

    Problem discussion: The marketplace is changing, both for those who choose to apply the new technology as well as for those who choose to stand outside. New electronic solutions create new opportunities for both businesses and consumers. Sustainability aspects of the electronic B2C (Business to Consumer) commerce have been studied before, but there is a knowledge gap in the electronic B2B (Business to Business) commerce and especially in relation to sustainability. This is even though it is expected to increase more than B2C commerce on the internet.

     

    Purpose: The purpose is to increase the understanding of the relationship between the export companies' electronic B2B commerce and their sustainability work based on the three dimensions; social sustainability, environmental sustainability and economic sustainability.

     

    Method: The qualitative study was conducted as a case study. The sample has been Swedish, exporting companies in Malaysia. Informants from each case company have been interviewed.

     

    Results and conclusion: All the companies in the case study are actively working on sustainability issues inspired by the three dimensions of social, environmental and economic sustainability. The result shows that few Swedish exporting companies in Malaysia are working with electronic B2B commerce. This is mainly because traditional sales dominate. For the companies that have implemented electronic B2B commerce, there are contradictions, in particular, between the economic sustainability dimension and the social sustainability dimension.

     

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  • Edström, Mathilda
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    E-butik för uthyrning: Ett CMS i PHP2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    The purpose of this assignment was to develop a CMS, Content Management System, where the user can control their own e-commerce store. By creating functions for handling Orders, Customer records, Products, Categories and Pages, you build a foundation for an independent e-commerce system. This is supplemented by a webshop, with a theme, which is used as a showroom for the e-commerce store. There you can place an order only with the payment method ”Pay at delivery”, since a full cash system is not yet integrated. The system and webshop is built on Laravel and PHP, with Bootstrap as a frontend framework for the CMS and jQuery for some backend. User tests are performed at the end of the development process to assess the simplicity of the system. The study shows that the system works, but there are development opportunities and needs for the addition of functions. But this is an expected result, as the system as a whole is not finished at this point, but will be continued to build on before the official launch. The report itself contains the entire development process, from idea to the finished result. Then you go through the result and the author expresses her opinions about the work. Ethical and social aspects are also highlighted as the e-commerce business contributes to both the advantages and disadvantages of daily trade and working life.

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  • Jönsson Seiron, Rebecca
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Habits: habitsapp.eco2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This report deals with the creation of Habit's website, which is aimed at private customers, habitsapp.eco. Habits is a small company in Gothenburg and they want to help companies, organizations and individuals to reduce their environmental impact in an easy and fun way. They have developed a web-based tool for this that will be launched in the fall of 2020 and the website created will be their "face out" for the tool aimed at private individuals. The report describes the steps and tools that were made and used to create this site. User stories have been made to get to know the user and identify their needs, sketches of the website have been made to easily illustrate how the site would look like and a sitemap has been created to know which pages the project should contain. How the creation has been done from HTML to Twig and the functionality behind things like menu, questions and answers section, support for multiple languages etc. Is brought up. In addition to this, tests have also been done by both me and my supervisor at Habits. Various tools have been used to ensure that the load time remains within an approved framework and tools such as the WAVE Evaluation Tool have been used to ensure the availability of the site. In the end, there is a finished product that fulfills Habit's purpose and hopefully is representative of their service and can draw users into their web-based tools.

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  • Färholt, Fredric
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Refactoring Nordyr: ReactJS + Laravel2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    This independent work includes refactoring a website application. In simpler sense, it means modernizing existing code by increasing its quality and making it more understandable; to exchange old knowledge of methods and concepts into something that is more relevant to its time. This refactoring has also meant to transform the UI into something that is more appealing, and more userfriendly. The website that has gone through the refactoring is Nordyr (”https://nordyr.com/”). Nordyr is a Nordic Film & Series Database that shares information about Nordic films and tv-series, and everyone involved. They also offer social tools such as user profiles and various tools to simplify the exploration and interaction between Nordic movies and consumers. This was made possible by using vanilla PHP, JavaScript/jQuery, and the MariaDB database for information storage and management. The implementation of the refactoring meant retaining PHP for the backend, but applying the Laravel framework, and likewise for JavaScript, but applying ReactJS (a powerful JavaScript library). Nordyr retains MariaDB for its information storage and management, however, its SQL queries have been adapted to Laravel’s query-builder and Eloquent ORM, which means that the majority of SQL queries have been rewritten and the majority of data tables are now represented by models. The restructuring of Nordyr has shown that the website now has the ability to scale better, and the development environment will also be more pleasant for those involved.

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  • Kohnic, Selma
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Utvecklingen av en WordPress-webbplats med tillgänglighet i fokus2020Independent thesis Basic level (university diploma), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [en]

    In today’s digitized society, it is not big news that the internet use in Sweden is large but also increasing every year. A large amount of the users, approximately 7,5 million people, have impairments in areas such as movement, motor skills, reading, understanding, seeing, hearing, concentration and memory. With such a large amount of the population present on the internet, there is a form of responsibility. This responsibility is based on making the usage of the millions of websites that can be visited by a user accessible and easy to use. In this project a WordPress website is developed for a company. The focus of the project is to develop with accessibility as the basis. An agile work process with increments and iterations is used in the project. After conducting an audience analysis, a sitemap, wireframes and a moodboard were created. Images were photographed and optimized while other graphic material was created. After that, design sketches were created by following web guidelines and gestalt laws. The coding was planned with flow charts and the website was created statically and then dynamically. Finally the website was tested in regards to functionality, responsiveness, compatibility with different browsers and a number of user tests were also conducted. All tests imply that the project has met the goals that were set and that the accessibility of the website is thus perceived as adequate. Furthermore, the ethical aspects that have been taken into account during the course of the project have been discussed. Lastly problems that have arisen and how they have been resolved have been analyzed. A discussion consisting of future improvements and final thoughts of the project concludes the report.

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  • Ioannides, Dimitri
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Gyimothy, Szilvia
    Copenhagen Business School, Department of Marketing, Frederiksberg, Denmark.
    The COVID-19 crisis as an opportunity for escaping the unsustainable global tourism path2020Inngår i: Tourism Geographies, ISSN 1461-6688, E-ISSN 1470-1340Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    The COVID-19 pandemic has halted mobility globally on an unprecedented scale, causing the neoliberal market mechanisms of global tourism to be severely disrupted. In turn, this situation is leading to the decline of certain mainstream business formats and, simultaneously, the emergence of others. Based on a review of recent crisis recovery processes, the tourism sector is likely to rebound from this sudden market shock, primarily because of various forms of government interventions. Nevertheless, although policymakers seek to strengthen the resilience of post-pandemic tourism, their subsidies and other initiatives serve to maintain a fundamentally flawed market logic. The crisis has, therefore, brought us to a fork in the road–giving us the perfect opportunity to select a new direction and move forward by adopting a more sustainable path. Specifically, COVID-19 offers public, private, and academic actors a unique opportunity to design and consolidate the transition towards a greener and more balanced tourism. Tourism scholars, for example, can take a leading role in this by redesigning their curriculum to prepare future industry leaders for a more responsible travel and tourism experience. 

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  • Imani, Ali
    et al.
    Iranian Center of Excellence in Health Management, Tabriz University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Gharibi, Farid
    University of Medical Sciences, Semnan, Iran.
    Khezri, Ali
    University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Joudyian, Nasrin
    University of Medical Sciences, Tabriz, Iran.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Economic costs incurred by the patients with multiple sclerosis at different levels of the disease: A cross-sectional study in Northwest Iran2020Inngår i: BMC Neurology, ISSN 1471-2377, E-ISSN 1471-2377, Vol. 20, nr 1, artikkel-id 205Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Multiple sclerosis (MS) causes significant economic burden to the patients, families, health systems and society. This study aimed to estimate the annual economic costs incurred by patients with multiple sclerosis (pwms) at different levels of the disease. Method: This was a cross-sectional study, using the Expanded Disability Status Scale (EDSS) tool for assessing the disease level of 300 (=N) pwms in East Azerbaijan province, Iran. To estimate the cost of MS, a questionnaire with its validity and reliability (CVR 92% and CVI 87%) and pilot test (Cronbach’s alpha score 0.89) was used. The data were collected by interviewing pwms and reviewing their clinical records. Multivariate linear regression was used to assess the relationship between disease levels and incurred costs. Results: The results revealed that the mean annual cost for pwms in Iran is 97,521,740 IRR (equivalent to 2321.94 USD; 1978.93 EURO) and the mean score of EDSS in pwms was 3.14. The annual cost incurred by pwms with mild, moderate and severe levels of disease were 83,918,150 IRR (1998.05 USD; 1702.88EURO), 137,772,660 IRR (3280.30 USD; 2795.71 EURO) and 119,962,670 IRR (2856.25 USD;2434.30 EURO), respectively. Also, on average, each increase in EDSS score in pwms in Iran led to increase 8,139,260 IRR (equivalent to 193.79 USD; and 165.16 EURO) in total annual cost which must paid from pwms and their households exclusively. Also, there was a significant relationship between total annual cost and disease severity in such a way that any increase in EDSS degree is led to 8,139,260 IRR (193.79 USD; 165.16 EURO) added cost for pwms. Conclusion: The study results could be helpful for Iranian health managers to solve problems which are facing by the patients with multiple sclerosis and their families. 

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  • Yang, Jiayi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kemiteknik.
    Utilization of cellulosic biomass towards sustainable chemicals and novel biomaterials2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    It is predicted by the United Nations that by year 2030 the world will need at least 50 percent more food, 45 percent more energy and 30 percent more water. The emissions of carbon dioxide from combustion of fossil fuels and waste are also increasing. At the same time, the demand for natural resources has never been higher and the planet is under unprecedented stress. This increasing awareness and concerns also drive and accelerate the research to facilitate switching the fossil-dependent economy to biobased economy. In this premise, forest industry plays a significant role, from leading the sustainable development to providing more materials to meeting the expanding demand. Moreover, the forest industry is a crucial part of the solution to global warming. The utilization of forest product has a long history, and the efforts of converting the biomass into value-added products or innovative applications have never been more stimulated than now. This thesis presents some examples of the exploration of lignocellulosic biomass based on the fractionation of lipophilic extractives and utilization of non-derivatized cellulose in novel materials.

    In the first part of thesis, the biorefinery of thermo-mechanical pulping (TMP) process water for lipophilic extractives was investigated as a way to extract the dissolved and colloidal substance (DCS). It was found that induced air flotation (IAF) combined with the foaming agent dodecyl trimethylammonium chloride (DoTAC) can efficiently remove the unwanted lipophilic extractives (Paper I) and retain valuable hemicelluloses (Paper II) in the TMP process water. By applying 80 ppm of DoTAC at a pH of 3.5 and 50 °C with induced air flotation, 94% of the lipophilic extractives were refined from the process water. The efficient biorefining of lipophilic extractives not only enabled the purification of TMP process water, but also facilitate the selective harvesting of hemicelluloses with very low impurities.

    In the second part of the work, non-derivatized cellulose (sulfite pulp) dissolved in LiOH/urea was used as substrate to fabricate spherical nanocomposite particles (Paper III), pH-responsive nanocomposite films (Paper IV) and crosslinked cellulose hydrogel (Paper V), respectively. The cellulose-chitosan nanocomposite particles were prepared in three different ways: instantly by dripping alkaline cellulose solution into dissolved chitosan in diluted acetic acid, and by mixing and emulsifying the biopolymer solutions to a water-in-oil emulsion, with or without addition of a crosslinking agent. Spherical cellulose-chitosan nanocomposite particles in the size from millimeter to micrometers were successfully prepared. It was demonstrated that some properties of the spherical particles, for example, morphology and size distribution, could be tuned by choosing between the different routes of preparation. In a different application of LiOH/urea dissolved cellulose, in the form of cellulose-chitosan nanocomposite films with pH-responsive swelling, were shown in the thesis. The nanocomposite film with 75% chitosan content exhibited maximum swelling ratio of 1500% and weight loss of chitosan of 55 wt% after 12 hours at pH 3. The utilization of the non-derivatized cellulose continued with cross-linking the macromolecules with methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) to form a robust hydrogel with superior water absorption properties. The cellulose hydrogel cured at 60 °C for 30 minutes, with a [MBA]/[glucose] molar ratio of 1.05, exhibited the highest water swelling capacity absorbing ca. 220 g H2O/g dry weight. This innovative procedure based on the direct dissolution of unmodified cellulose in LiOH/urea followed by MBA cross-linking provides a simple and fast approach to prepare chemically cross-linked cellulose hydrogels of high molecular weight with superior water uptake capacity.

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  • Disputas: 2020-06-09 09:30 C312, Sundsvall
    Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Wide Range Isolated Power Converters2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Power electronics technology is rapidly growing in most industrialapplications. There is an increasing demand for efficient and low profilepower converters in the industry like automotive, power grids, renewableenergy systems, electric rail systems, home appliances, and informationtechnology. In some applications, there is an increasing demand for powerconverters showing a stable performance over a wide variation in inputvoltage, whereas in others the demand is for converters showing a stableperformance over a wide variation of output voltage. In this regard, not somuch work has been done to combine both requirements into one solution;this is the primary focus of the dissertation. It presents a unique solution tothe industry, which addresses both requirements. The technique can beapplied in a one size fits all solution which not only extends the range of theline voltage and the output voltage but also provides the flexibility to adjustthe required set of line/output voltage. The variation in line voltage severelydegrades the performance of power converters because of the extendedfreewheeling interval, more circulating current, narrow range of zero voltageswitching and increased EMI. To overcome this, the converter consists of tworeconfigurable modes on the input side that can be configured following thevariation in line voltage to maintain a stable performance. In addition, itproposes three reconfigurable steps for the output voltage, which can be usedto adjust the output voltage from base level X to 2X and 4X in discrete stepsand/or from X - 4X volt while showing stable performance. This makes theproposal a 2x3 reconfigurable modes power converter, which means that thegain of the proposed converter can be raised to 4 or 8. Furthermore, theflexibility in the reconfigurable structure simplifies the implementation of theproposed single solution in a range of applications. Each concept proposed inthe thesis is verified analytically, experimentally and modelling it into aSPICE simulation. Then the whole concept is confined into a single entity,which is applied in an example application of a phase shifted full bridgeconverter. The full converter is characterized for input voltage 100-400Vdc, theoutput voltage 24-96Vdc, and up to the load power of 1kW.

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  • Stassen, Willem
    et al.
    Division of Emergency Medicine, Stellenbosch University, Cape Town, South Africa; Department of Clinical Research and Education, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden.
    Olsson, Leif
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Kurland, Lisa
    Department of Medical Sciences, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden; Department of Emergency Medicine, Örebro University Hospital, Örebro, Swede.
    The application of optimisation modelling and geospatial analysis to propose a coronary care network model for patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction2020Inngår i: African Journal of Emergency Medicine, ISSN 2211-419XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BackgroundThe incidence of myocardial infarction is increasing in South Africa. Prompt treatment is indicated to reduce mortality. One way of expediting treatment is to set up regional referral recommendations that can guide prehospital providers on the best reperfusion strategy for a particular patient. A coronary care network model for patients who present with ST-elevation myocardial infarction is proposed, using the North West province, of South Africa as a case study.

    MethodsGeospatial analysis with network optimisation modelling was applied, to determine which strategy (prehospital thrombolysis, in-hospital thrombolysis or percutaneous coronary intervention) was most appropriate for patients presenting within each of the municipal wards of the North West province.

    ResultsAn efficient and swift recommendation for the optimal reperfusion strategy is obtained using the current model, even in the instance of a large amount of ward data with additional constraints. For most municipal wards (204, 53%) percutaneous coronary intervention is the preferred reperfusion strategy based on proximity. For the remainder of the wards prehospital (138, 36%) or in-hospital (44, 11%) thrombolysis is recommended.

    ConclusionA scalable and efficient method of determining the optimal reperfusion strategy for a patient presenting with ST-elevation myocardial infarction in the North West province, is presented. This approach can serve as a model which can be applied to other settings and can form the basis of regional coronary care network development priorities and resource allocations.

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  • Linander, Ida
    et al.
    Department of Epidemiology and Global Health and Umeå Centre for Gender Studies, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Lauri, Marcus
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Alm, Erika
    Department of Cultural Sciences, Gothenburg University, Gothenburg, Sweden.
    Goicolea, Isabel
    Department of Epidemiology and Global Health, Umeå University, Umeå, Sweden.
    Two Steps Forward, One Step Back: A Policy Analysis of the Swedish Guidelines for Trans-Specific Healthcare2020Inngår i: Sexuality Research & Social Policy, ISSN 1868-9884, E-ISSN 1553-6610Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    IntroductionSweden has one of the world’s longest histories of providing subsidized gender-confirming medical procedures forpeople with trans experiences. However, until 2015, Swedish trans-specific healthcare lacked formal guidelines.MethodsIn this study, we analyse the Swedish guidelines for trans-specific healthcare from 2015 using Bacchi’s approach:“What’s the problem represented to be?”Following this approach, we analyse problem representations in the guidelines withspecial focus on evaluation, diagnosis of gender dysphoria and criteria for access to care.ResultsThree problem representations were identified in our analysis:“the problem of (non)linear gender”,“the mental healthparadox”and“gender dysphoria as a psychiatric, psychological and psychosocial problem”. Together, these problem represen-tations construct gender dysphoria as a psychopathology and allocate the decision-making power to mental health care providers.Hence, the guidelines reconstruct the gatekeeping function among care providers while undermining care seekers’ability to attainself-determination. While the guidelines do allow for non-linear embodiment, they simultaneously reconstruct a linear relation-ship between gender identity and social gender role. Mental healthiness and, for migrants, having a residence permit seem to befavoured in the evaluation of gender dysphoria and for access to gender-confirming medical procedures, while aspects of gendereuphoriaare silenced.ConclusionsWe conclude that the guidelines resemble, and have similar effects to, the psychomedical understandings of genderdysphoria prevalent in medical research and practice. At the same time, the guidelines attempt to depathologize trans experiencesand open up space for new subjectivities to be eligible for access to gender-confirming medical procedures.Policy ImplicationThe knowledge from this study can be useful when constructing, revising or analysing guidelines for trans-specific healthcare in several contexts.

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  • Naidu, Veluru Ramesh
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för naturvetenskap. Stockholm University.
    Synthesis of Cross-Conjugated Polyenes via Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative C-C Bond Forming Cascade Reactions of Allenes2020Inngår i: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 85, nr 8, s. 5428-5437Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-C bond forming cascade reaction of allenes involving a coupling between an enallene and an allenyne followed by a carbocyclization of the generated Pd-intermediate was developed. This cascade reaction afforded functionalized cross-conjugated polyenes. The enallene is initially activated by palladium and reacts with the allenyne to give the cross-conjugated polyenes. 

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  • van Wietmarschen, Herman A.
    et al.
    Louis Bolk Institute, Bunnik, 3981, Netherlands.
    Busch, Martine
    Van Praag Institute, Utrecht 3511, Netherlands.
    van Oostveen, Annemiek
    Rivas Zorggroep, Sliedrecht, Netherlands.
    Pot, Gerda
    Louis Bolk Institute, Bunnik, 3981, Netherlands.
    Jong, Miek C.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Probiotics use for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a pragmatic participatory evaluation in nursing homes2020Inngår i: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 20, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in 2-25% of nursing home residents, which may lead to dehydration, malnutrition, severe complications and hospitalizations. Research shows that probiotics can be effective and safe in reducing AAD. However, probiotics are not routinely used in Dutch nursing homes. The objectives of this evaluation were to develop a procedure for the implementation of probiotics to prevent AAD in nursing homes, to evaluate effects on AAD occurrence, and to evaluate the implementation process of probiotics in daily care. METHODS: A pragmatic participatory evaluation (PPE) design was chosen, as it seemed a suitable approach for implementation of probiotics, as well as for evaluation of its effectiveness in daily nursing home practice. Probiotics administration was implemented in three nursing homes of the Rivas Zorggroep for residents with somatic and/or psychogeriatric conditions. Ninety-three residents provided data on 167 episodes of antibiotics use, of which 84 episodes that included supplementation with probiotics and 83 episodes with no probiotics supplementation. A multispecies probiotics was administered twice daily upon start of antibiotic treatment, up to 1 week after completing the antibiotics course. The occurrence of AAD was monitored and a process evaluation was conducted to assess facilitators and barriers of probiotics implementation. RESULTS: The number of episodes with AAD when using probiotics was significantly lower than when no probiotics was used (20% vs 36%; p = 0,022, Chi-square). No significant differences in the occurrence of AAD were found between the residents taking amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or ciprofloxacin. Reported facilitators for implementation were perceived benefits of probiotics and prescription by medical staff. Reported challenges were probiotics intake by residents and individual decision-making as to which resident would benefit from it. CONCLUSION: Successful implementation of probiotics demonstrated the prevention of AAD in nursing home residents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 94786163, retrospectively registered on 3 February 2020.

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  • Mosleh, Marwan
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap. Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine.
    Al Jeesh, Y.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap. Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Eriksson, C.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Barriers to managing and delivery of care to war-injured survivors or patients with non-communicable disease: a qualitative study of Palestinian patients' and policy-makers' perspectives2020Inngår i: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 20, nr 1Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Improving access to optimal quality of care is a core priority and ambitious health policy goal in spite of impediments, threats and challenges in Palestine. Understanding the factors that may impede quality of care is essential in developing an effective healthcare intervention for patient with non-communicable disease (NCD) or war-injured survivors. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were performed using a purposive sampling strategy of 18 political-key informants, 10 patients with NCD and 7 war-injured survivors from different health facilities in Gaza Strip. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for data collection. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Important field notes of the individual interviews were also reported. Thematic-driven analytic approach was used to identify key themes and patterns. RESULTS: From the policy maker's perspective, the following important barriers to accessing optimal healthcare for patients with NCD or war-injured survivors' treatment were identified; 1) organizational/structural 2) availability 3) communication 4) personnel/lack of staff 5) financial and political barriers. Patient with NCD or war-injury had similar experiences of barriers as the policy makers. In addition, they also identified socioeconomic, physical and psychological barriers for accessing optimal healthcare and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The main perceived barriers explored through this study will be very interesting and useful if they are considered seriously and handled carefully, in order to ensure efficient, productive, cost-effective intervention and delivery of a high-standard quality of care and better disease management.

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  • Jonsson, Ola
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Persson, Elias
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Makt- och Beroende: En studie om makt- och beroende mellan Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap och 5 glesbygdskommuner i Västerbotten och Norrbottens inland.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
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  • Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för ekoteknik- och hållbart byggande. Englund GeoLab AB, Östersund, Sweden; Chalmers.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    SLU.
    Dale, Virginia H.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.
    Kline, Keith L.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
    Mola-Yudego, Blas
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Murphy, Fionnuala
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    English, Burton
    The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, Tennessee.
    McGrath, John
    McGrath Forestry Services, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Busch, Gerald
    Bureau for Applied Landscape Ecology and Scenario Analysis, Goettingen, Germany.
    Negri, Maria Cristina
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Brown, Mark
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Goss, Kevin
    Kevin Goss Consulting, Gooseberry Hill, Western Australia, Australia.
    Jackson, Sam
    Genera Energy Inc., Vonore, Tennessee.
    Parish, Esther S.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
    Cacho, Jules
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Zumpf, Colleen
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Quinn, John
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Mishra, Shruti K.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Multifunctional perennial production systems for bioenergy: performance and progress2020Inngår i: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840XArtikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global population increases and becomes more affluent, biomass demands for food and biomaterials will increase. Demand growth is further accelerated by the implementation of climate policies and strategies to replace fossil resources with biomass. There are, however, concerns about the size of the prospective biomass demand and the environmental and social consequences of the corresponding resource mobilization, especially concerning impacts from the associated land-use change. Strategically integrating perennials into landscapes dominated by intensive agriculture can, for example, improve biodiversity, reduce soil erosion and nutrient emissions to water, increase soil carbon, enhance pollination, and avoid or mitigate flooding events. Such ?multifunctional perennial production systems? can thus contribute to improving overall land-use sustainability, while maintaining or increasing overall biomass productivity in the landscape. Seven different cases in different world regions are here reviewed to exemplify and evaluate (a) multifunctional production systems that have been established to meet emerging bioenergy demands, and (b) efforts to identify locations where the establishment of perennial crops will be particularly beneficial. An important barrier towards wider implementation of multifunctional systems is the lack of markets, or policies, compensating producers for enhanced ecosystem services and other environmental benefits. This deficiency is particularly important since prices for fossil-based fuels are low relative to bioenergy production costs. Without such compensation, multifunctional perennial production systems will be unlikely to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioeconomy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • Heikkilä, K.
    et al.
    Pentti, J.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    Lallukka, T.
    Virtanen, M.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Bjorner, J.
    Borritz, M.
    Brunner, E.
    Burr, H.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Koskinen, A.
    Leineweber, C.
    Magnusson Hanson, L. L.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Pietiläinen, O.
    Rahkonen, O.
    Rugulies, R.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Steptoe, A.
    Suominen, S.
    Theorell, T.
    Vahtera, J.
    Väänänen, A.
    Westerlund, H.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Peripheral Artery Disease: A Multi-Cohort Study2020Inngår i: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 9, nr 9Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used τ2, I2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (τ2=0.0427, I2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations. Conclusions Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • Düking, Peter
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Giessing, Laura
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Frenkel, Marie Ottilie
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap. Karolinska Institutet.
    Sperlich, Billy
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Wrist-worn wearables for monitoring heart rate and energy expenditure while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity: Validation study2020Inngår i: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, nr 5, artikkel-id e16716Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity reduces the incidences of noncommunicable diseases, obesity, and mortality, but an inactive lifestyle is becoming increasingly common. Innovative approaches to monitor and promote physical activity are warranted. While individual monitoring of physical activity aids in the design of effective interventions to enhance physical activity, a basic prerequisite is that the monitoring devices exhibit high validity. Objective: Our goal was to assess the validity of monitoring heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity with 4 popular wrist-worn wearables (Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa). Methods: While wearing the 4 different wearables, 25 individuals performed 5 minutes each of sitting, walking, and running at different velocities (ie, 1.1 m/s, 1.9 m/s, 2.7 m/s, 3.6 m/s, and 4.1 m/s), as well as intermittent sprints. HR and EE were compared to common criterion measures: Polar-H7 chest belt for HR and indirect calorimetry for EE. Results: While monitoring HR at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.09-0.62, 0.13-0.88, 0.62-1.24, and 0.47-1.94 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 0.9%-4.3%, 2.2%-6.7%, 2.9%-9.2%, and 4.1%-19.1%, respectively, for the 4 wearables. While monitoring EE at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.34-1.84, 0.32-1.33, 0.46-4.86, and 0.41-1.65 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 13.5%-27.1%, 16.3%-28.0%, 15.9%-34.5%, and 8.0%-32.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The Apple Watch Series 4 provides the highest validity (ie, smallest error rates) when measuring HR while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity, followed by the Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, in that order. The Apple Watch Series 4 and Polar Vantage V are suitable for valid HR measurements at the intensities tested, but HR data provided by the Garmin Fenix 5 and Fitbit Versa should be interpreted with caution due to higher error rates at certain intensities. None of the 4 wrist-worn wearables should be employed to monitor EE at the intensities and durations tested. 

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  • Kristensson, Michaela
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för hälsovetenskap.
    Relationship between lower body muscle strength and explosiveness and degrees rotated in the double axel figure skating jump2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Disputas: 2020-06-12 10:00 C306/Online, Sundsvall
    Lindblom, Terje
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för medie- och kommunikationsvetenskap.
    Bakom bilderna: Bildjournalister och bildjournalistik i ett marknadsorienterat journalistiskt fält2020Doktoravhandling, monografi (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The restructuring of Swedish newspapers due to technological and economic changes in the last decade has hit journalists, and especially photojournalists, very hard. In 2017, Sweden's 165 daily newspapers only employed a total of 60 photojournalists combined, with 70 newspapers left with no photojournalist on staff at all. However, during the same time period the use of images in Swedish newspapers increased.

    Using Bourdieu’s field theory, the purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the positions of photojournalism and photojournalists in the Swedish journalistic field during a crucial and important time for the media industry, through 40 interviews with respondents in swedish newspaper as well as with freelancers in the field. The actors varied in age, gender and number of years in the field, and most importantly through different amounts of symbolic capital, in accordance with Bourdieu’s theory.

    The study shows that Swedish photojournalists’ ideal was to document the world and produce in-depth visual news stories. However, these time-consuming ideals comes into conflict with emerging market-oriented ideals described by other actors in the Swedish journalistic field. This also meant that although photojournalism itself is described as having an increased importance in the field, the photojournalists hadn’t received a correspondingly higher status.

    The study concludes that the commercial importance of photojournalism to the market-oriented journalistic field, as described by actors in the field, shows how it has become a professional boundary object which in turn exposes an on-going professional boundary work and symbolic power struggles between, on the one side, media managers, reporters and multi-skilled journalists and on the other side, photojournalists, concerning the doxa and ethos of photojournalism which in turn is affecting the professional position of photojournalists in the Swedish journalistic field.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Bulale, Amina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Koroma, Nasumah
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av behandling vid bröstcancer: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är en diagnos som drabbar kvinnor världen över. Riskfaktorer påtalar att alltfler kvinnor förväntas insjukna av denna diagnos. Statistiken visar att kvinnans möjlighet till överlevnad är varierande samt beroende av landets tillgång till behandlingar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av bröstcancerbehandling.

    Metod: Litteraturöversikten baserades på tolv kvalitativa vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Valda vetenskapliga artiklar analyserades enligt Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet påvisade att kvinnorna upplevde känslor som bristande medlidande, stöd samt uppmuntran till delaktighet från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal vilket enligt de försvårade hanteringen av behandlingen. Kvinnorna förklarade dessutom att dessa faktorer skapade känslor som ångest, oro, rädsla, ilska, skam samt sorg över den mödosamma livsförändringen behandlingarnas bieffekter medförde. Trots ökade överlevnadsmöjligheter beskrev kvinnorna att försämrad självbild var konsekvens av behandlingen vilket enligt de ökade den sociala isolationen.

    Diskussion: För att stärka livskvaliteten samt välmående hos kvinnan är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan strävar efter en kvalitetsfylld relation med denne, då detta ökar möjligheten till planering av den personcentrerade omvårdnaden. Med stöd av Antonovskys teori kan detta sägas stärka kvinnas förmåga till hantering av situationen, vilket kommer stärka hennes känsla av sammanhang.

    Slutsats: Omvårdnaden är väldigt komplex vid vård av kvinnor med bröstcancer. Som patientansvarig sjuksköterska är egenskaper som empati, förståelse, lyhördhet samt respekt väsentliga att besitta vid vård av dessa kvinnor. Samtidigt behövs kontinuerligt uppdaterade kunskaper hos sjuksköterskan för förbättring av vårdens kvalité. Författarna förespråkar därför att vidare forskning kring ämnesområdet krävs för utveckling av omvårdnaden samt för att skapa välbefinnande.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Bulale, Koroma
  • Ahokas, Karri
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kemiteknik.
    Identifiering av värmekällor som kan minska behovet av direktånga i mixgroparna på Ortvikens pappersbruk2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    SCA Ortviken är ett pappersbruk i Sundsvall. Arbetets syfte var att identifiera åtgärder som leder till minskat behov att direktånga. Examensarbetet är delat i två deluppgifter.

    I december 2015 stängdes pappersmaskin 2 ner. Sedan dess har fördelningen av sju stycken värmeväxlare som förvärmer bakvattnet i papperstillverkning varit oförändrad.

    Direktånga används för att kompensera för värmebehov som inte nås med värmeväxlarna. Ångdata från pappersmaskinerna kartlagdes för att identifiera vilken fördelning av värmeväxlare skulle ledas till största effektivitet. Effekterna i värmeväxlare beräknades med NTU-metoden. Den effektivaste fördelning av värmeväxlare är den rådande fördelningen om inte värmeväxlare sju kopplas till pappersmaskin fem.

    Ångan från rejektraffinörer R81-R84 måste släppas ut i luften på grund av tryckförlusterna i den långa ledningen som leder ångan till ångomformaren. Syftet med uppgiften är att beräkna hur mycket ånga kan tas till vara på genom att leda ångan till en venturiskrubber som tar vara på värmen från andra processer.  Ångdata från bruket analyserades och genomarbetades så att ångflödet kunde simuleras med ett tryckförlust program, fluidflow3. Simuleringen gav resultatet att ungefär 17 500 MWh per år skulle kunna tas till vara på, om ånga skulle ledas till venturiskrubbern.

    Det har gjorts förenklingar i beräkningar och simuleringar men resultatet från uppgifterna ger en bra uppskattning på storleksordning på möjliga besparingar.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
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  • Disputas: 2020-06-12 10:00 F234, Östersund
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för humaniora och samhällsvetenskap.
    Scenarios we live by: Theorizing anticipatory practices for societal security2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and theorizes practices for generating knowledge and experience of possible futures in the present. Often, our unreflected everyday actions are clearly focused on the future. We plan future events into calendars, buy insurances, follow weather forecasts, and practice for performances of various kinds, all to reduce the uncertainties that the future brings. Various societal areas have developed specialized and systematic ways of generating knowledge in order for people to prepare for possible future events. A particular and extensive area is that involving societal security and preparedness for extraordinary events. The thesis explores various aspects of futures-making practices in the overall field of societal security, with a special focus on recent measures to strengthen the public's emergency preparedness. The overall aim is to deepen knowledge about the contemporary use of futures-making practices (such as imagination and enactment) and related techniques (such as scenario writing and simulations). Societal security and emergency preparedness have recently come to be recognized nationally and globally in ways that we have not experienced since the Cold War era. The empirical backdrop of the thesis tells about some major events that occurred during the first five years of the new millennium. During this period, a number of terrorist attacks and natural disasters occurred which greatly affected futures-making practices in areas related to societal security and preparedness. Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, many actors in the security business began to implement new, or revived, ways of relating to the future. From previously focusing mainly on plausible events, interest now turned to possible and unexpected events. Following the criticized management of hurricane Katrina in 2005, a visionary work was initiated with the aim of creating an inclusive and all-encompassing culture of preparedness, a culture that would involve all sectors and actors of society, including the public. The examples may by from a unilateral American context, however the events can also be perceived as part of a global trend with local variations. A trend that includes new ideas about public participation in societal preparedness, as well as new ways in which we create preliminary representations of possible futures in order to prepare for them. In order to clarify different ways in which we relate to the future, I apply cultural geographer Ben Anderson’s (2010) classification of anticipatory practices. Anderson highlights three principal practices: imagination, calculation, and performance. The thesis explores how futures are imagined and enacted through the techniques of scenario writing and simulation, in four separate studies (articles I-IV). Studies I and II examine how imaginations of future emergencies are articulated in interviews with local safety coordinators and volunteers in Sweden, as well as in institutional exercise scenarios in the US. The first study shows how collaboration between the public and professionals is perceived as an ideal for managing societal stress and, furthermore, how various forms for organizing the voluntary public may facilitate for or interfere with fruitful collaboration. The second study investigates how governmental authorities has popularized emergency preparedness through a campaign aiming to prepare people for a possible zombie invasion. The study shows how the campaign makes use of a dynamic interplay between reality and fiction, realism and irrealism, and affirmation and distancing. Studies III and IV examine the meanings of spatiality, materiality, and affect in large-scale disaster simulations for the public. The studies are based on documents and observations collected and conducted in Japan and Turkey in 2014 and 2015. With the third study, I wish to contribute to existing debates on experience design and affective atmospheres in disaster simulation, while in the fourth study I explore enactment-based exercises and experience design through a lens of Foucauldian governmentality and spatial rationality. The four articles are given a common theoretical framework consisting of sociological perspectives on time and temporality, which highlight how the conditions for futures-making practices has evolved through changes in people’s relation to the future. The overall results in the thesis indicate that possibilities for the public to participate in enactment-based exercises are currently limited. However, when made publicly available, exercises are most often designed as entertaining, sensory, and affective learning experiences. Present imaginaries and enactments of negative futures are thus enmeshed with considerations regarding what is possible and probable, real and unreal, near and distant. Furthermore, facilities for public exercises are part of a complex apparatus involving political, economic, and educational perspectives, as well as aspects of entertainment, urban planning, educational technology, and public space.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Scenarios we live by
  • Disputas: 2020-06-11 09:00 Zoom, Sundsvall
    Beltramelli, Luca
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Random and Hybrid Medium Access for M2M Communication: Scalability and Energy Analysis2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The term machine-to-machine (M2M) communication identifies any fully automated communication between intelligent devices, autonomous from human intervention. M2M communication is a key enabling technology for the Internet of Things (IoT), where it is used to provide ubiquitous connectivity between a large number of intelligent devices. M2M technologies find applications in numerous emerging use cases, such as smart metering, smart cities, intelligent transportation systems, eHealth monitoring, and surveillance/security. The service requirements placed onM2M communication can vary greatly depending on the intended area of application. In general, M2M applications are characterized by the high number of devices communicating with one another through sporadic and short transmissions. The devices are generally distributed over wide areas without easy access to the power grid, relying for their energy supply on batteries and energy harvesting. Therefore, the design of M2M communication technologies should meet the goal of supporting a large number of connected devices while retaining low energy consumption. One of the obstacles to achieving this goal is the high level of interference that can be present on the channel if a large number of M2M devices decide to transmit within a short period of time. To understand how to overcome this obstacle, it is necessary to explore new and old design options available in the channel access of M2M communication. The aim of this work is to study the performance and propose improvements to the channel access mechanisms of M2M communication technologies operating in the unlicensed frequency spectrum. The two technologies discussed in this thesis are IEEE 802.11ah and LoRaWAN. The performance metrics that have been considered consistently throughout this work are the scalability and energy efficiency of the investigated channel access mechanisms, which are especially critical to massive M2M.The first part of the thesis focuses on the IEEE 802.11ah standard and its medium access mechanism with station grouping. An analytical model of the grouping mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah combined with enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is presented to assess the quality of service (QoS) differentiation available in IEEE 802.11ah. The throughput and delay of the access categories of EDCA are investigated for different group size and composition. The results reveal that grouping is effective at increasing the throughput of both high and low priority access categories up to 40% compared to the case without groups. A redesign of the access mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah is proposed to realize a hybrid channel access for energy efficient uplink data transmission.  The numerical results show that fora wide range of contending M2M devices and even for the relatively small frame size of 256 bytes, the use of an hybrid channel access can help reducing the average energy  consumption  of  the  devices  per  successful  uplink  frame  transmission.   In the  considered  scenarios,  the  proposed  MAC  mechanism  was  able  to  reduce  the average  energy  consumption  per  successful  transmission  up  to  55%  compared  to standard approach. The second part of the thesis focuses on LoRa, with an investigation on the performance of alternative random channel access mechanisms in LoRaWAN. The connection between the channel access mechanism and the intensity of interference in LoRa networks is characterized for pure Aloha, slotted Aloha, and CSMA channel access. The results reveal several assisting guidelines on the design and selection of a medium access solution within LoRa’s parameter space: device density, service area, and spreading factor allocation.  An out-of-band synchronization mechanism based on FM-Radio Data System (FM-RDS) is proposed to achieve synchronous channel access in LoRa.  The throughput and fairness results for the proposed communication show the clear advantages of synchronous communication in LoRa, meanwhile, the use of out-of-band synchronization reduces the usage of LoRa channels, improving the scalability.  The timing errors of FM-RDS are evaluated combining experimental approach and analytical methods. The observations reveal that despite the poor absolute synchronization, FM-RDS can effectively be used to realize time-slotted communication in LoRa, with performance similar to those obtained by more accurate but expensive time-dissemination technologies.  Finally, a comprehensive model of the interference in neighboring clusters of LoRa devices is proposed, highlights the disruptive effects of the inter-cluster interference on the transmissions success probability, particularly for the devices using the largest spreading factors.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Disputas: 2020-06-10 09:00 C312, Sundsvall
    Li, Yongwei
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för informationssystem och –teknologi.
    Computational Light Field Photography: Depth Estimation, Demosaicing, and Super-Resolution2020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of camera technology from film-based cameras to digital cameras has been witnessed in the past twenty years, along with impressive technological advances in processing massively digitized media content. Today, a new evolution emerged -- the migration from 2D content to immersive perception. This rising trend has a profound and long-term impact to our society, fostering technologies such as teleconferencing and remote surgery. The trend is also reflected in the scientific research community, and more intention has been drawn to the light field and its applications.

     

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a better understanding of light field structure by analyzing its sampling behavior and to addresses three problems concerning the light field processing pipeline: 1) How to address the depth estimation problem when there is limited color and texture information. 2) How to improve the rendered image quality by using the inherent depth information. 3) How to solve the interdependence conflict of demosaicing and depth estimation.

     

    The first problem is solved by a hybrid depth estimation approach that combines advantages of correspondence matching and depth-from-focus, where occlusion is handled by involving multiple depth maps in a voting scheme. The second problem is divided into two specific tasks -- demosaicing and super-resolution, where depth-assisted light field analysis is employed to surpass the competence of traditional image processing. The third problem is tackled with an inferential graph model that encodes the connections between demosaicing and depth estimation explicitly, and jointly performs a global optimization for both tasks.

     

    The proposed depth estimation approach shows a noticeable improvement in point clouds and depth maps, compared with references methods. Furthermore, the objective metrics and visual quality are compared with classical sensor-based demosaicing and multi-image super-resolution to show the effectiveness of the proposed depth-assisted light field processing methods. Finally, a multi-task graph model is proposed to challenge the performance of the sequential light field image processing pipeline. The proposed method is validated with various kinds of light fields, and outperforms the state-of-the-art in both demosaicing and depth estimation tasks.

     

    The works presented in this dissertation raise a novel view of the light field data structure in general, and provide tools to solve image processing problems in specific. The impact of the outcome can be manifold: To support scientific research with light field microscopes, to stabilize the performance of range cameras for industrial applications, as well as to provide individuals with a high-quality immersive experience.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Computational Light Field Photography: Depth Estimation, Demosaicing, and Super-Resolution
  • Thuresson, Anna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    LEDARSKAP FÖR KVALITETSKULTUR: Fem förebilders erfarenhet av att skapa kvalitetskultur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Befintlig forskning visar att det finns ett starkt samband mellan ledarskap och att skapakvalitetskultur för organisationers framgång. Denna studie syftar till att undersöka hu skap påverkar kvalitetskulturen. Dgenom att ta reda på vilka förutsättningarledare behöver för att kunna skapa kvalitetskultur, samt vilka faktorer i ledarskapet somfrämjar respektive hindrar skapandet av kvalitetskultur. Studien har en kvalitativ ansatsoch har genomförts genom litteraturstudier och semistrukturerade intervjuer med femledare som anses vara förbilder på att skapa kvalitetskultur. I studien framkom blan annaatt skapa kvalitetskultur kräver tydliga incitamt, kunskap, enig ledning medinsikt och förståelse om vad det innebär att skapa en kvalitetskultur. Vidare visa resultatet att det är ett långsiktigt, hårt och svårt arbete som kräver strukturer som gerstöd till en kvalitetskultur och ett tränat ledarskap. De hindrande faktorer somframkommer är bland annat detaljstyrning, okunskap, adhoc-lösningar och kortsiktigh Studiens resultat bekräftar på många sätt den befintliga forskning som finns på området.Resultatet visar på att skapandet av kvalitetskultur ofta är ett förändringsledningsarbeteoch att det är komplext, svårt och tidskrävande. Det väcker frågor som; hur säkerställervi kunskap och förmåga som krävs i organisationer för att hantera den komplexitet somdet innebär att skapa kvalitetskultur och hur blir kvalitetskulturen bestående?

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Karlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Minkkinen, Kirsi
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Avdelningen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Radikal Kundinvolvering: - innovativt samskapande för tjänstekvalitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Tidigare forskning har visat att kundinvolvering kan ske på olika nivåer, där dehögsta nivåerna bidragit till bland annat ökad kundnöjdhet, konkurrenskraftigafördelar och förbättrat införande av nya tjänster hos organisationerna. Syftet medstudien har varit att bidra med kunskapsutveckling kring Radikal Kundinvolveringinom tjänstesektorn. Begreppet var nytt för forskningsområdet och få tidigarestudier visade effekterna av djupgående kundinvolvering. Den teoretiskareferensramen inleddes med kundfokus inom Offensiv kvalitetsutveckling,kundengagemang och kundinvolvering för att slutligen mynna ut i begreppetRadikal Kundinvolvering. Den kunskapsteoretiska utgångspunkten i studien harvarit hermeneutisk med abduktiv ansats. Kvalitativa djupintervjuer har använts sommetod för datainsamling. Till intervjuerna valdes fyra organisationer sombedömdes ha arbetat med Radikal Kundinvolvering och frågor rörandeerfarenheter, effekter och framtidsutsikter ställdes utifrån en semistruktureradintervjumall. Intervjumaterialet analyserades med utgångspunkt frånforskningsfrågorna. Förutom att stärka resultaten från tidigare forskning, visadeförfattarnas slutsats på att organisationerna kombinerade olika metoder förkundinvolvering och att effekterna av Radikal Kundinvolvering blev stärktorganisationskultur, ökad kommunikation och delaktighet. Arbetet ledde också tillatt kundgrupper vars åsikter vanligtvis inte fångades genom traditionella metoderblev hörda.

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  • Götberg, Jessica
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Kvalitetsarbete inom högre utbildning: Framtagande av en modell för arbetemed utvecklingsprojekt inom lärarutbildning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Det senaste årets granskning av lärosätens kvalitetssystem som genomfördes avuniversitetskanslersämbetet (UKÄ) visar att även högre utbildning behöver arbeta med sitt internakvalitetsarbete och att lärosätena behöver ta fram arbetssätt och metoder för att genomföra det.Syftet med det här arbetet var att bidra med kunskap om hur arbete med kvalitetsutveckling ser utinom högre utbildning samt att ta fram en modell för att arbeta med förbättrings ochkvalitetsutveckling inom lärarutbildning. Författaren deltog i ett projektarbete sominteraktionsforskare för att ta fram en modell för arbetet med förbättrings- och utvecklingsarbetetinom lärarutbildning. Den här studien har bidragit med kunskap om att högre utbildning idagarbetar med kvalitetsarbetet utifrån de riktlinjer som finns i Högskolelag, Högskoleförordning ochStandards and Guidelines for Quality Assurances in the European Higher Education Area (ESG).Slutsatsen var, att den modell för att arbeta med utvecklingsprojekt som togs fram i projektarbetet,behöver följa dessa lagar, förordningar och riktlinjer som anges i ESG och att arbetssättet imodellen bör vara cykliskt och kan utgå från PDSA. Vidare är slutsatsen att modellen med fördelkan ta utgångspunkt i offensiv kvalitetsutveckling och hörnstensmodellen och att om lärandetinom organisationen sker på alla nivåer kontinuerligt kan modellen stödja arbetet till en lärandeorganisation. Den här studien kan vara av intresse för andra som vill lära mer ominteraktionsforskning samt för lärosäten som står inför att utveckla sitt eget interna kvalitetsarbete.

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  • Croon, Jessica
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Kvalitetsutveckling och hållbar utveckling: Följeslagare på en resa som ständigt pågår?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Hållbarhet har de senaste årtiondena fått allt större betydelse på alla nivåer i samhället.Dagens kunder och intressenter ställer krav på att organisationer ska inkluderahållbarhet i sina processer i högre grad än tidigare. Systemsyn på en organisation samtfokus på ständiga förbättringar är centralt både inom hållbar utveckling ochkvalitetsutveckling men synergieffekter dem emellan är ett relativt nyttforskningsområde. Verksamhetsutvärdering enligt en excellencemodell där bådaperspektiven är integrerade är ett sätt att försöka nå framgång. Genom fallstudie av enutmärkelsemottagares kvalitetsutvecklingsresa söktes svar genom semistruktureradeintervjuer i kombination med dokumentanalys på hur kvalitetsutveckling kan stödjaorganisationer att ställa om mot en mer hållbar utveckling. Resultaten visar att fokuspå kultur och struktur i en organisation samt mjuka värderingar är en väg att gå för attuppnå synergieffekter mellan kvalitetsutveckling och hållbar utveckling. Det finnsstora möjligheter för en organisation som har väl etablerade systematiska arbetssättför kvalitetsutveckling att även tillämpa de arbetssätten för den hållbara utvecklingenoch på så sätt bidra till uppfyllande av Agenda 2030

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  • Nilsson Landby, Caroline
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för kvalitets- och maskinteknik.
    Att praktiskt sätta kunden i centrum”: En utvärdering av en organisation som har implementerat ett agilt arbetssätt utifrån metodiken Scrum.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Forskningen grundar sig på att det finns en kunskapslucka i utvärderingar av företag som praktiskt implementerar arbetsmetoden Scrum. Det finns tydliga samband mellan kulturen i en organisation och hur denna kan effektivt och framgångsfullt implementera ett agilt arbetssätt (Ilvari, Ilvari, 2011). Forskaren gjorde en semistrukturerad intervjuform med 7 medarbetare. Syftet utvärderar implementering av Scrum som metod samt hur organisationen jobbar med kundinsikter. Resultatet visar att en majoritet av medarbetarna upplever ett högre engagemang och större motivation tack vare det nya arbetssättet. Att sätta kunden i centrum är ett arbete som kräver stort fokus och då inte minst från organisationens ledare. Här har organisationens ledare varit engagerade. Några förbättringspunkter identifierats i forskningen, som till exempel att organisationen behöver bli bättre på att systematiskt mäta och sprida kundinsikter, att utveckla arbetet med att bli en lärande organisation samt att ledningen behöver hitta ett sätt att strategiskt jobba med organisationens kultur.

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  • Kastbom, Josefin
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Olofsson, Åsa
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Stöd efter en hjärtinfarkt: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar ett stort antal människor i en hjärtinfarkt. Många människor dör också av en hjärtinfarkt. Det är vanligt att få andra sekundära problem efteråt. Depression, nedsatt livskvalitet och trötthet är vanligt återkommande. Sjuksköterskans roll är att arbeta utifrån ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa personers upplevelser av stöd efter en hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: Detta arbete har genomförts som en litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ design. Innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman tillämpades vid analys av artiklarna. Artiklarna söktes fram genom två databaser, CINAHL och Pubmed. Totalt sammanställdes femton artiklar till resultatet. SBU:s mall för “kvalitetsgranskning av studier med kvalitativ forskningsmetodik” tillämpades under kvalitetsgranskningen.

    Resultat: Det var av stor vikt att de insjuknade kände att de fick tillräckligt med stöd för att kunna hantera den svåra situationen och för att kunna återhämta sig. De upplevde att de stöd de fick inte var tillräckligt. Ett ökat stöd från hälso- och sjukvården var viktigt för återhämtningen. Hjälp och stöd från familj, närstående och vänner samt stöd från att dela sina erfarenheter med andra lyftes också i resultatet.

    Diskussion: Personers upplevelser av stöd kunde kopplas till Antonovskys teori. Sjuksköterskan bar på en viktig roll i att arbeta utifrån personcentrerad omvårdnad.

    Slutsats: Personer som insjuknat i en hjärtinfarkt har ett ökat behov av stöd i olika former. Mer forskning och kunskap inom ämnet kan leda till att bättre stöd kan utformas i framtiden.

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    Kastbom, Olofsson
  • Gunst, Therese
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Opioider och en del av dess baksida: En litteraturstudie om erfarenheterna av att leva som missbrukare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Opioid användningen har ökat både legalt och illegalt globalt. Det framgår att smärta är den största risken att utveckla ett missbruk, men man ser även andra riskfaktorer förutom fysiska så ser man även riskfaktorer som beror på psykiska och sociala faktorer.

    Syfte: Syftet är att belysa personer egna erfarenheter av att leva med ett opioidmissbruk.

    Metod: Designen i detta arbete är en litteraturöversikt som innehåller 16 stycken granskade och analyserade vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Det huvudsakliga resultatet var att personer som missbrukar upplever stigmatisering både före under och efter avslutad behandling som påverkar tillfrisknandet och återfallsrisken. Bemötande i vården sågs som viktigt för både att påbörja en behandling, slutföra en behandling samt för att undvika återfall i missbruk. Stöd och förståelse från vården och samhället sågs vara viktigt under hela missbruket

    Diskussion: Personers erfarenheter av missbruk varierar när det gäller till exempel bemötande, behandling och stöd. Tyvärr är det mest negativa erfarenheter och för att ge missbrukarna den vård dom förtjänar behövs kunskapen kring missbruk ökas för vårdpersonal.

    Slutsats: Personcentrerad vård är nödvändigt för denna patientgrupp som är en viktig del i sjuksköterskans profession. Att få känna sig delaktig i den egna vården är viktig för att få bästa möjliga framgång.

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    Gunst, Larsson
  • Li, J.
    et al.
    Li, Y.
    Zhou, N.
    Xiong, W.
    Wang, G.
    Zhang, Q.
    Du, A.
    Gao, J.
    Kong, Z.
    Lin, H.
    Xiang, J.
    Li, C.
    Yin, X.
    Wang, X.
    Yang, H.
    Ma, X.
    Han, J.
    Zhang, J.
    Hu, T.
    Cao, Z.
    Yang, T.
    Yin, H.
    Zhu, H.
    Luo, J.
    Wang, W.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China; .
    Study of silicon nitride inner spacer formation in process of gate-all-around nano-transistors2020Inngår i: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, nr 4, artikkel-id 793Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Stacked SiGe/Si structures are widely used as the units for gate-all-around nanowire transistors (GAA NWTs) which are a promising candidate beyond fin field effective transistors (FinFETs) technologies in near future. These structures deal with a several challenges brought by the shrinking of device dimensions. The preparation of inner spacers is one of the most critical processes for GAA nano-scale transistors. This study focuses on two key processes: Inner spacer film conformal deposition and accurate etching. The results show that low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride has a good film filling effect; a precise and controllable silicon nitride inner spacer structure is prepared by using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tool and a new gas mixtures of CH2F2/CH4/O2/Ar. Silicon nitride inner spacer etch has a high etch selectivity ratio, exceeding 100:1 to Si and more than 30:1 to SiO2. High anisotropy with an excellent vertical/lateral etch ratio exceeding 80:1 is successfully demonstrated. It also provides a solution to the key process challenges of nano-transistors beyond 5 nm node. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för naturvetenskap, teknik och medier, Institutionen för elektronikkonstruktion.
    A Modified Higher Operational Duty Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converter for Reduced Circulation Current2020Inngår i: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 2644-1284Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides many advantages, the reduction in the operational duty of traditional phase shifted full converter limits its scope in applications where a wide range of input voltage is the main requirement. Operation with low duty cycle extends freewheeling interval, which results in degraded performance such as more circulation current, increased conduction loss in power devices, narrow range of zero voltage switching and increased EMI. To overcome these drawbacks, this work suggests a modified phase shifted full bridge converter that keeps the operational duty of the converter high for a wide range of input voltage. This cuts the freewheeling interval and improves performance. The proposed converter consists of four low profile transformers having reconfigurable interconnection structure. There are two distinct reconfigurable modes, a low gain mode and a high gain mode, which can be adopted in accordance with the variation in line voltage. The proposed work is validated in LTspice simulation and hardware characterization for a wide range of input voltage 100-400Vdc/12Vout and up to the load power of 1.2kW.

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  • Valan, Lotha
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Föräldrars användning av Internet för rådgivning avseende sina friska barns hälsa och utveckling och dess inverkan på Barnhälsovårdens konsultativa arbete: En studie i Svensk Barnhälsovård2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [sv]

    Att bli förälder är en livsomvälvande händelse som kan vara både glädjande och skrämmande. Som förälder ansvarar man för en annan människa där man i vissa fall behöver ny information, kunskap och råd för att leva upp till de nya kraven som en förändrad familjesituation kräver. Förmågan att tillgodogöra sig information, kunskap och råd kan relateras till begreppet hälsolitteracitet som berör hur personer förstår och tillgodogör sig hälsorelaterad information. Den svenska barnhälsovårdens mål är att främja barns hälsa och utveckling och förebygga ohälsa hos barn, samt stödja föräldrar i föräldrarollen. Barnhälsovårdens sjuksköterskor följer barnets hälsa och utveckling till dess att barnet fyller fem år och är en viktig del i stöttningen av föräldrarna. De flesta av dagens föräldrar är födda i den digitala generationen och Internet är en naturlig källa till information och ökad kunskap. Föräldrarnas hälsolitteracitet kan inverka på hur internetinformationen påverkar dem och deras agerande för att möta barnens behov. I nuläget är litet känt om hur informationsöverflödet från digitala källor som Internet används av föräldrar och i interaktionen med barnhälsovården. Denna licentiatavhandlings syfte är att generera ökad kunskap om hur föräldrar använder Internet för hälsorelaterad information relaterat till deras 0–6 åriga friska barn och hur detta kan påverka dem själva samt om och i så fall, hur detta inverkar på barnavårdssjuksköterskans konsultativa arbete. I licentiatavhandlingen ingår två delstudier: Delstudie I genomfördes som en kvalitativ intervjustudie med sjuksköterskor (n=20) verksamma inom Barnhälsovården. Syftet var att beskriva deras erfarenheter och uppfattningar om föräldrars internetanvändning. I resultatet framkom tre kategorier som belyste syftet: Det framkom att ”Internet underlättar vård samt tillgång och tillgänglighet av vård och vårdinformation”, vidare att ” Internet gör yrkesutövande mer komplext” samt till sist uttrycktes det ”Ett behov av förändrad yrkesroll för barnhälsovårdssjuksköterskan”. I delstudie II genomfördes en enkätundersökning med föräldrar (n=687) som hade barn inskrivna på barnhälsovården inom en region i norra Sverige. Syftet var att beskriva föräldrars internetanvändning för råd eller information relaterat till hälsa och barns utveckling för deras friska barn samt hur informationen användes i kontakten med Barnhälsovården. Nästan alla föräldrar (n=686), uppfattade att Internet är en bra informationskälla för råd och information om barns hälsa och utveckling, men de uttryckte osäkerhet inför mängden av information samt kring den egna förmågan att söka, sortera och värdera funnen information. I resultatet sågs också att många föräldrar 81,7% (n = 561) önskade ha stöd och vägledning av sin barnhälsovårdssjuksköterska avseende internetinformation och webbsidor. Licentiatavhandlingens resultat visar att föräldrar har ett behov av stöd och att barnhälsovårdens sjuksköterskor genom den uppbyggda relationen dem emellan både kan vägleda och ge råd för att stödja föräldrar. Genom att stödja föräldrar på detta sätt kan barnhälsovården bidra till att öka föräldrars hälsolitteracitet och därmed även deras hälsokompetens. Barnhälsovårdens medarbetare behöver kompetensutveckling och verktyg för att kunna stödja föräldrar mot större hälsolitteracitet och därigenom även en högre hälsokompetens. Det ses som viktigt att utveckla fler kvalitetssäkrade digitala verktyg som komplement till dagens Barnhälsovård baserad på personliga möten. Verktygen skulle kunna bestå i att stötta föräldrar till att söka och värdera information från evidensbaserade källor, samt att införliva chatt och videokonferensmöjligheter mellan föräldrar och barnhälsovårdssjuksköterskorna också inom offentlig sjukvård.

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  • Costache, Mădălina Elena
    et al.
    Frick, Andreas
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Engman, Jonas
    Faria, Vanda
    Hjorth, Olof
    Hoppe, Johanna M
    Gingnell, Malin
    Frans, Örjan
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Alaie, Iman
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för psykologi och socialt arbete.
    Linnman, Clas
    Wahlstedt, Kurt
    Tillfors, Maria
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder.2020Inngår i: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, nr 4, artikkel-id e0232187Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.

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  • Peric, Danijela
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Rimal, Pramila
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Bedömning och lindring av postoperativ smärta: ur sjuksköterskans perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Postoperativ smärta upplevs efter ett kirurgiskt ingrepp. Det är en individuell upplevelse och kan leda till olika komplikationer, bland annat kronisk smärta, sämre sårläkning och mortalitet. Det är sjuksköterskans uppgift att bedöma och lindra den postoperativa smärtan.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskornas erfarenhet och omvårdnadsåtgärder för att bedöma och lindra postoperativ smärta hos vuxna.

    Frågeställning: Vilka olika faktorer påverkar sjuksköterskornas omvårdnadsåtgärder vid postoperativ smärta?

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats med 16 originalartiklar. Litteratursökningen utfördes från databaserna Cinahl och Pubmed. Innehållsanalys genomfördes enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004) och integrativ analys enligt Friberg (2017).

    Resultat: Resultatet presenterar sammanlagt fyra huvudkategorier och tio subkategorier. Sjuksköterskorna använde sig av värmedyna, positionsändring och god kommunikation med patienten för att lindra postoperativ smärta. Det uppstod även olika hinder för att kunna bedöma och lindra postoperativ smärta. Till exempel otydliga riktlinjer, tidsbrist och kunskapsbrist.

    Diskussion: Det framkom vikten av att använda omvårdnadsåtgärder för att kunna lindra postoperativ smärta, såsom massage och distrahera patienten genom att vara närvarande. Utifrån sjuksköterskornas erfarenhet är tidsbrist och kunskapsbrist ett hinder för att kunna utföra god omvårdnad.

    Slutsats: Omvårdnadsåtgärder är en komplettering för farmakologisk behandling. Vidare forskning behövs för att kunna ge en god omvårdnad vid postoperativ smärta.

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  • Berglund, Celina
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Ingerhed, Frida
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Patientens upplevelse av opioidbehandling: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Försäljningen av receptbelagda opioider fyrdubblades mellan 1999–2014 i USA. Opioidberoende klassificerades som en kronisk medicinsk störning och ett missbruk utvecklades när dosen på läkemedlet inte längre kontrollerades av en läkare. Sjuksköterskan spelade en viktig roll i kontroll, uppföljning och utvärdering av opioidadministreringen.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa upplevelser hos patienter med kronisk smärta som utvecklat beroendeproblematik efter långvarig opioidbehandling.

    Metod: Detta var en litteraturöversikt med induktiv ansats. Kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning användes för att sammanställa resultatet. Artiklarna analyserades via Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys samt enligt Friberg. I resultatet inkluderades en artikel med mixad metod som analyserades enligt båda metoderna. Resultatet skrevs utifrån nio kvalitativa resultat och åtta kvantitativa resultat.

    Resultat: Patienter med kronisk smärta och långvarig opioidbehandling upplevde både en förbättrad och försämrad livskvalité. Patienterna kände sig beroende av opioiderna. Patienterna var oroliga för förutfattade meningar samt diskriminering för sitt opioidanvändande. Bristande stöd från sjukvården beskrevs och det upplevdes svårt att hantera sitt beroende. Psykiska konsekvenser framkom samt orsaker och samband till opioidberoende återfanns.

    Diskussion: En känsla av sammanhang var viktig för patienter med beroendeproblematik. De behövde få förslag på olika behandlingsalternativ för att bli delaktig i vården samt för att öka deras autonomi. Sjuksköterskan behövde stötta dessa patienter genom ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt.

    Slutsats: Denna forskning var viktig för att minska eventuella patientskador. Vårdpersonal behöver kunskap om patienters upplevelse för att kunna bedriva en god personcentrerad omvårdnad.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Ingerhed, Berglund
  • Ernberg, Leona
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Edlund, Mint
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Omvårdnad i det mångkulturella samhället: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sverige är ett mångkulturellt samhälle vilket ställer krav på sjuksköterskans kompetens för att ge god omvårdnad. En persons kultur styr hur denne ser världen och vad denne anser vara rätt, i ett mångkulturellt samhälle behövs en förståelse för andra kulturer för att ha möjlighet att skapa goda förutsättningar för andra kulturer och inte para sin egen.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med annan kulturell bakgrund än sin egen.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ beskrivande ansats genomfördes och resulterade i 15 kvalitativa artiklar och en artikel med mixad metod som hittades i CINAHL och PubMed.

    Resultat: Kulturella skillnader påverkade interaktionen mellan sjuksköterskan, patienterna och deras anhöriga. Belastningen ökade i arbetet med patienter från en annan kultur och vårdtiderna blev längre för dessa patienter. Ord, påståenden och förklaringar kunde tolkas olika beroende på kultur. Det sågs vara viktigt att anpassa vården efter patientens kulturella bakgrund för att kunna ge adekvat vård. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att det tog längre tid att skapa en relation med patienterna. En osäkerhet uttrycktes som grundades i bristande kunskaper om transkulturell omvårdnad.

    Diskussion: Vårdanpassning var viktigt för att skapa god omvårdnad till patienter från en annan kulturell bakgrund, för att kunna anpassa vården måste sjuksköterskan känna till sin egen bakgrund. Språkbarriärer var ett stort hinder för kommunikationen och kunde bli avhjälpt av teknik.

    Slutsats: Mer forskning skulle behövas i området för att skapa riktlinjer för god omvårdnad i det mångkulturella samhället.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Ernberg, Edlund
  • Borg Sundman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Paulsson, Amanda
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Marginaliserad vård för våldsutsatta kvinnor: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld mot kvinnor är ett globalt problem med många konsekvenser. Riktlinjer för att bemöta och hantera våld mot kvinnor finns både på en internationell samt nationell nivå. Detta fenomen är av komplex natur och resulterar i att våld mot kvinnor inte alltid upptäcks eller behandlas inom hälso- och sjukvården (HSV). Det är av betydelse att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av kontakten med HSV för att utifrån det kunna ge ett bra bemötande och ett optimalt vårdtillfälle.

    Syfte: Att belysa våldsutsatta kvinnors upplevelser av kontakten med HSV.

    Metod: Litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats gjordes för att se över det rådande kunskapsläget inom ämnet.

    Resultat: HSV-personal upplevdes inte ha tid att prata om våldsutsatthet och konfidentialiteten upplevdes att brista. Servicestandard och produktivitet upplevdes prioriterade och våldsutsatthet som underliggande orsak till att söka vård upplevdes inte uppmärksammat utav vårdpersonal. Vid vårdtillfället erhölls ingen eller otillräcklig information om tillgänglig hjälp. En bristande tillit till HSV beskrevs relaterat till kontakten med andra instanser samt ett bristfälligt bemötande vid kontakt med HSV.

    Diskussion: För att ge den våldsutsatta kvinnan ett optimalt vårdtillfälle krävs en förtroendefull relation för att kunna samtala om våld. Tidigare forskning har visat att HSV-personal beskriver barriärer till att samtala om våld och behöver utbildas och tränas i att bemöta våldsutsatta kvinnor.

    Slutsats: Vidare forskning behövs av våldsutsatta kvinnors upplevelser, specifikt av mötet med sjuksköterskan för att kunna utveckla denna professions arbete med kvinnors våldsutsatthet.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Borg Sundman, Paulsson
  • Korzhynska, Olena
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Hussaini, Masouma
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Egenvård vid hjärtsvikt ur patientens perspektiv: en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 poäng / 15 hpOppgave
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Prognosen för hjärtsvikt är allvarlig men modern läkemedelsbehandling och bättre poliklinisk uppföljning har förbättrat prognosen under senaste åren. Patienterna ska utföra regelbundna viktkontroller och medverka i doseringen av vätskedrivande läkemedel, patientutbildning om hjärtsvikt och egenvård spelade en avgörande roll för patienternas hälsa och välbefinnande.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa upplevelsen av egenvård hos patienter med hjärtsvikt.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes där artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, efter kvalitetsbedömningen inkluderades 14 vetenskapliga artiklarna med kvalitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Fem kategorier identifierades; att uppleva stress och rädsla vid utförande av egenvård, att sakna kunskap och information för utförande av egenvård, att ta hjälp av andra vid egenvårdshantering, påverkan på symtom i det dagliga livet och betydelse av kunskap relaterad till egenvård.

    Diskussion: Patienterna med hjärtsvikt upplevde brist på information och otillräckliga kunskap om sjukdomen. Påfrestningar vid emotionella upplevelser gjorde att patienterna hade svårt att hantera sin egenvård på grund av svåra symtom. Patienterna med hjärtsvikt engagerade sig vid sin egenvård genom att skapa hanteringsstrategier med hjälp av socialt stöd och kunskap.

    Slutsats: Det spelar en stor roll att sjuksköterskan har kunskapen om hur patienterna upplever egenvården, vilka strategier och hinder finns och hur de utvecklar engagemangen och motivationen. Det krävs mer forskningen kring detta ämne för att minska återinläggningar på sjukhuset. Genom en god information och utbildningen kan sjuksköterskan använda sig av pedagogiska kunskaper och resurser som kan utveckla till och skapa en undervisningssituation. Genom det kan sjuksköterskan stödja patientens egenvårdskapacitet, hjälpa patienterna att inse nyttan av att följa egenvård.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    Korzhynska, Hussaini
  • Kachlami, Habib
    et al.
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Davidsson, Per
    Obschonka, Martin
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för ekonomi, geografi, juridik och turism.
    Lundström, Anders
    The regional employment effects of new social firm entry2020Inngår i: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Artikkel i tidsskrift (Fagfellevurdert)
    Abstract [en]

    As a contribution to research and theorizing on the economic role of new firm formation, we undertake the first ever investigation of regional employment effects of the entry of new social firms. Our study is guided by an established model of the employment effects of new firm entry over time and provides a direct comparison to the employment effects of commercial entrants. Our results show that the net employment effect of new social firms follows a wave pattern over the study’s eight-year horizon, apparently produced by the same combination of direct and indirect effects previously theorized for new commercial entrants. The results also indicate that net employment effect per social firm entrant is larger than for commercial firms. The study provides a first empirical assessment of employment creation effects of new social firms and contributes to a more nuanced theoretical understanding of employment effects across types of entrants. By specifying the economic contribution of social firms our study can open up a new track in social entrepreneurship research and provide important input to employment policy.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Rönnberg, Linda
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för omvårdnad.
    Tracheal Extubation of Patients Cared for in the Anesthesia Setting: Experiences Described by Registered Nurse Anesthetists and Anesthesiologists2020Licentiatavhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Sweden, extubation is an interdisciplinary process involving teamwork between Registered Nurse Anesthetists (RNA) and Anesthesiologists, and comprehensive demands are placed on the professionals providing anesthesia. The extubation of the endotracheal tube after General Anesthesia (GA) is a critical moment for the patient. In that moment, the patient is in a vulnerable state and at risk of suffering severe complications, such as hypoxia, laryngospasm, aspiration, and hypertension. Anesthesia deals with identifying options, making risk assessments and reconsiderations. Clinical decision-making in anesthesia includes making decisions quickly and sometimes re-evaluating these just as quickly. In the often brief meeting prior to anesthesia, a relationship with the patient emerges and an unspoken demand arises: to care for the life that is placed in the hands of the anesthetists.

    Aim The overall aim was to gain an understanding of the Registered Nurse Anesthetists’ and Anesthesiologists’ experiences of their decision-making practices in the process of extubation of the endotracheal tube in the anesthesia setting with patients undergoing general anesthesia.

    Method This licentiate thesis consists of two studies (I, II), both conducted with a qualitative design using focus-group interviews (I) and Individual interviews (II) to collect data. A total of 20 RNAs from two hospitals and 17 Anesthesiologists from three hospitals were included, using a consecutive sampling strategy. Both studies were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and adopted an inductive approach to seek a deeper understanding of the phenomena, using manifest content analysis. In order to explore how the RNAs and Anesthesiologists experience the process of extubation and to identify nuances between them, the two studies were merged together in this licentiate thesis.

    Results When merging these studies (I, II) together by combining subcategories from both, six themes emerged. The theme, Assembling unique decisions, deals with the how the RNAs (I) and Anesthesiologists (II) assess, prepare, prevent and reconsider when planning for the extubation. Acting upon sensibilities consists of them recognizing patterns, leaning on their experience, and being receptive to different inputs from the patient and other professionals. The third theme, Being guided by intuition, included how the RNAs and Anesthesiologists relied on their feelings and were guided by emotions when deciding when to extubate. Safeguarding the patient deals with them protecting and acting as an advocate for the patient and how they focus on and are humble in the process of extubation. In the fifth theme, Being in a vulnerable position, the RNAs (I) felt they were on their own when making the decision on when to extubate, while the Anesthesiologists (II) felt as if they were one of the team. Using their own receptivity included how they established a connection with the patient and sensed the atmosphere.

    Discussion In their first encounter with the patient, or when obtaining knowledge about the patient, the RNAs and Anesthesiologists had already started to tailor a mental plan of the extubation unique to each patient. The plan consisted of small pieces of information being gathered and assembled together during the anesthesia, and this information is then combined with their experience of similar situations and with their intuition with the aim of safeguarding the patient. RNAs and Anesthesiologists act upon sensibilities when deciding on when to extubate. These strategies align with the concept of phronesis, a form of knowledge understood as practical wisdom that facilitates good clinical judgement in being rational, which is based on pre-understanding, experience, and interpersonal relationships and which is difficult to teach to someone else.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext
  • Norberg, Malin
    Mittuniversitetet, Fakulteten för humanvetenskap, Institutionen för utbildningsvetenskap.
    Från design till meningsskapande: En multimodal studie om elevers arbete med matematikläroböcker i årskurs 12020Doktoravhandling, med artikler (Annet vitenskapelig)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines students’ work with mathematics textbooks in Year 1 (students aged 7–8 years) of Swedish elementary school. The aim of this thesis was to contribute knowledge about and an understanding of how students make meaning in their work with mathematics textbooks. Central to the thesis was the textbook’s designed meaning potentials, or the meaning potential needed to solve the exercise as designed, as well as the students’ meaning-making when working with the textbooks. With regard to the students’ meaning-making, interest is directed first, to the students’ specific meaning-making in the work with the textbook and second, to the students’ opportunities to take agency in the work with the textbook. This thesis was delimited to the area of subtraction in both printed and digital mathematics textbooks. The theoretical point of departure for this thesis was a design-oriented multimodal perspective (Selander & Kress, 2010). Interest was directed to the various resources for communication, or modes (e.g. Kress, 2010), in the mathematics textbook, such as images, mathematical symbols, moving images, writing and speech. Two studies were conducted: Study 1, Multimodal textbook analysis and Study 2, Students’ meaning-making. Two analyses were made in Study 1. The first was a descriptive textbook analysis mapping out the modes and subtraction in all Swedish Year 1 textbooks, totaling 17 textbook series, both digital and printed, and approximately 1,700 pages. That analysis was followed by a multimodal qualitative textbook analysis of 2–4 exercises from each textbook series according to its designed meaning potential. Study 2 examined the students’ work with mathematics textbooks. The data that formed the basis for the analysis were textbook pages, the teacher’s guides to the used mathematics textbook series, video material of 18 Year 1students’ work with these pages and representations in the form of studentresponses. The analysis involved a multimodal approach focusing on what mathematical content the exercises were designed to offer and what the stu-dents discovered when working with the mathematics textbook.Two articles were written based on Study 1 (Articles I and II), and two were written based on Study 2 (Articles III and IV). In addition to this, the data from Study 1 and the results from Study 2 were also analyzed using the concept of agency to further deepen the understanding of students’ meaning-making when working with mathematics textbooks. The results showed large differences between mathematics textbooks for Year1 in Sweden, regarding both how different modes are used and how subtraction is presented. The results also showed that the students’ work with mathematics textbooks differed. The students’ meaning-making was sometimes based on the designed meaning potential but sometimes not. Regarding images, the results showed that images could be particularly challenging for the students to interpret and that several students expressed that it was desirable to solve the exercises without using the images. The analysis using the concept of agency showed that exercises in which students could choose their working methods made it possible to take agency and that the students’ possibility for agency is affected by the prevailing notion that successful mathematics students do not use images but base their meaning-making on mathematical symbols. All in all, three conclusions were drawn. First, the mathematics textbook as a teaching resource could be developed, both printed and digital mathematics textbooks. Complexities can be detected more easily through greater awareness of modes as various forms of expression for the textbooks’ mathematics content. Second, the complexity of the students’ individual work with the mathematics textbook was highlighted. The students’ individual work should start from the basis of the exercise’s design, so that the students’ meaning-making can be directed to the designed meaning potentials. Third, for younger students to discover themselves as mathematical individuals, one must question the notions that mathematical symbols are the most important mode for young learners and that images are for those who find mathematics difficult. Based on these conclusions, questions can be raised concerning students’ potential for discovering themselves as mathematical individuals and whether the students’ self-discovery as mathematical individuals would differ if the mathematics textbooks more fully recognized students’ meaning-making using various modes. One question raised in relation to the students’ possibilities to take agency when working with mathematics textbooks concerned what knowledge is recognized in Year 1 mathematics textbooks. The results indicated that mathematical symbols already occupy a special position in Year 1. If modes other than mathematical symbols are more widely recognized as knowledge, then more young students will discover themselves as mathematical individuals.

    Fulltekst (pdf)
    fulltext