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  • Public defence: 2020-06-09 09:30 C312, Sundsvall
    Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Wide Range Isolated Power Converters2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Power electronics technology is rapidly growing in most industrialapplications. There is an increasing demand for efficient and low profilepower converters in the industry like automotive, power grids, renewableenergy systems, electric rail systems, home appliances, and informationtechnology. In some applications, there is an increasing demand for powerconverters showing a stable performance over a wide variation in inputvoltage, whereas in others the demand is for converters showing a stableperformance over a wide variation of output voltage. In this regard, not somuch work has been done to combine both requirements into one solution;this is the primary focus of the dissertation. It presents a unique solution tothe industry, which addresses both requirements. The technique can beapplied in a one size fits all solution which not only extends the range of theline voltage and the output voltage but also provides the flexibility to adjustthe required set of line/output voltage. The variation in line voltage severelydegrades the performance of power converters because of the extendedfreewheeling interval, more circulating current, narrow range of zero voltageswitching and increased EMI. To overcome this, the converter consists of tworeconfigurable modes on the input side that can be configured following thevariation in line voltage to maintain a stable performance. In addition, itproposes three reconfigurable steps for the output voltage, which can be usedto adjust the output voltage from base level X to 2X and 4X in discrete stepsand/or from X - 4X volt while showing stable performance. This makes theproposal a 2x3 reconfigurable modes power converter, which means that thegain of the proposed converter can be raised to 4 or 8. Furthermore, theflexibility in the reconfigurable structure simplifies the implementation of theproposed single solution in a range of applications. Each concept proposed inthe thesis is verified analytically, experimentally and modelling it into aSPICE simulation. Then the whole concept is confined into a single entity,which is applied in an example application of a phase shifted full bridgeconverter. The full converter is characterized for input voltage 100-400Vdc, theoutput voltage 24-96Vdc, and up to the load power of 1kW.

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  • Naidu, Veluru Ramesh
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Bäckvall, Jan-Erling
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholm University.
    Synthesis of Cross-Conjugated Polyenes via Palladium-Catalyzed Oxidative C-C Bond Forming Cascade Reactions of Allenes2020In: Journal of Organic Chemistry, ISSN 0022-3263, E-ISSN 1520-6904, Vol. 85, no 8, p. 5428-5437Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    An efficient palladium-catalyzed oxidative C-C bond forming cascade reaction of allenes involving a coupling between an enallene and an allenyne followed by a carbocyclization of the generated Pd-intermediate was developed. This cascade reaction afforded functionalized cross-conjugated polyenes. The enallene is initially activated by palladium and reacts with the allenyne to give the cross-conjugated polyenes. 

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  • van Wietmarschen, Herman A.
    et al.
    Louis Bolk Institute, Bunnik, 3981, Netherlands.
    Busch, Martine
    Van Praag Institute, Utrecht 3511, Netherlands.
    van Oostveen, Annemiek
    Rivas Zorggroep, Sliedrecht, Netherlands.
    Pot, Gerda
    Louis Bolk Institute, Bunnik, 3981, Netherlands.
    Jong, Miek C.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Probiotics use for antibiotic-associated diarrhea: a pragmatic participatory evaluation in nursing homes2020In: BMC Gastroenterology, ISSN 1471-230X, E-ISSN 1471-230X, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Antibiotic-associated diarrhea (AAD) occurs in 2-25% of nursing home residents, which may lead to dehydration, malnutrition, severe complications and hospitalizations. Research shows that probiotics can be effective and safe in reducing AAD. However, probiotics are not routinely used in Dutch nursing homes. The objectives of this evaluation were to develop a procedure for the implementation of probiotics to prevent AAD in nursing homes, to evaluate effects on AAD occurrence, and to evaluate the implementation process of probiotics in daily care. METHODS: A pragmatic participatory evaluation (PPE) design was chosen, as it seemed a suitable approach for implementation of probiotics, as well as for evaluation of its effectiveness in daily nursing home practice. Probiotics administration was implemented in three nursing homes of the Rivas Zorggroep for residents with somatic and/or psychogeriatric conditions. Ninety-three residents provided data on 167 episodes of antibiotics use, of which 84 episodes that included supplementation with probiotics and 83 episodes with no probiotics supplementation. A multispecies probiotics was administered twice daily upon start of antibiotic treatment, up to 1 week after completing the antibiotics course. The occurrence of AAD was monitored and a process evaluation was conducted to assess facilitators and barriers of probiotics implementation. RESULTS: The number of episodes with AAD when using probiotics was significantly lower than when no probiotics was used (20% vs 36%; p = 0,022, Chi-square). No significant differences in the occurrence of AAD were found between the residents taking amoxicillin/clavulanic acid or ciprofloxacin. Reported facilitators for implementation were perceived benefits of probiotics and prescription by medical staff. Reported challenges were probiotics intake by residents and individual decision-making as to which resident would benefit from it. CONCLUSION: Successful implementation of probiotics demonstrated the prevention of AAD in nursing home residents. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ISRCTN 94786163, retrospectively registered on 3 February 2020.

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  • Mosleh, Marwan
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Ministry of Health, Gaza, Palestine.
    Al Jeesh, Y.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Al Farabi Kazakh National University, Almaty, Kazakhstan.
    Eriksson, C.
    Carlerby, Heidi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Viitasara, Eija
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Barriers to managing and delivery of care to war-injured survivors or patients with non-communicable disease: a qualitative study of Palestinian patients' and policy-makers' perspectives2020In: BMC Health Services Research, ISSN 1472-6963, E-ISSN 1472-6963, Vol. 20, no 1Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    BACKGROUND: Improving access to optimal quality of care is a core priority and ambitious health policy goal in spite of impediments, threats and challenges in Palestine. Understanding the factors that may impede quality of care is essential in developing an effective healthcare intervention for patient with non-communicable disease (NCD) or war-injured survivors. METHODS: Qualitative interviews were performed using a purposive sampling strategy of 18 political-key informants, 10 patients with NCD and 7 war-injured survivors from different health facilities in Gaza Strip. A semi-structured interview guide was developed for data collection. The interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Important field notes of the individual interviews were also reported. Thematic-driven analytic approach was used to identify key themes and patterns. RESULTS: From the policy maker's perspective, the following important barriers to accessing optimal healthcare for patients with NCD or war-injured survivors' treatment were identified; 1) organizational/structural 2) availability 3) communication 4) personnel/lack of staff 5) financial and political barriers. Patient with NCD or war-injury had similar experiences of barriers as the policy makers. In addition, they also identified socioeconomic, physical and psychological barriers for accessing optimal healthcare and treatment. CONCLUSIONS: The main perceived barriers explored through this study will be very interesting and useful if they are considered seriously and handled carefully, in order to ensure efficient, productive, cost-effective intervention and delivery of a high-standard quality of care and better disease management.

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  • Jonsson, Ola
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Persson, Elias
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Makt- och Beroende: En studie om makt- och beroende mellan Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap och 5 glesbygdskommuner i Västerbotten och Norrbottens inland.2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering. Englund GeoLab AB, Östersund, Sweden; Chalmers.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    SLU.
    Dale, Virginia H.
    University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee.
    Kline, Keith L.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
    Mola-Yudego, Blas
    University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu, Finland.
    Murphy, Fionnuala
    University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland.
    English, Burton
    The University of Tennessee Institute of Agriculture, Knoxville, Tennessee.
    McGrath, John
    McGrath Forestry Services, Perth, Western Australia, Australia.
    Busch, Gerald
    Bureau for Applied Landscape Ecology and Scenario Analysis, Goettingen, Germany.
    Negri, Maria Cristina
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Brown, Mark
    University of the Sunshine Coast, Sunshine Coast, Queensland, Australia.
    Goss, Kevin
    Kevin Goss Consulting, Gooseberry Hill, Western Australia, Australia.
    Jackson, Sam
    Genera Energy Inc., Vonore, Tennessee.
    Parish, Esther S.
    Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee.
    Cacho, Jules
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Zumpf, Colleen
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Quinn, John
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Mishra, Shruti K.
    Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois.
    Multifunctional perennial production systems for bioenergy: performance and progress2020In: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Energy and Environment, ISSN 2041-8396, E-ISSN 2041-840XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As the global population increases and becomes more affluent, biomass demands for food and biomaterials will increase. Demand growth is further accelerated by the implementation of climate policies and strategies to replace fossil resources with biomass. There are, however, concerns about the size of the prospective biomass demand and the environmental and social consequences of the corresponding resource mobilization, especially concerning impacts from the associated land-use change. Strategically integrating perennials into landscapes dominated by intensive agriculture can, for example, improve biodiversity, reduce soil erosion and nutrient emissions to water, increase soil carbon, enhance pollination, and avoid or mitigate flooding events. Such ?multifunctional perennial production systems? can thus contribute to improving overall land-use sustainability, while maintaining or increasing overall biomass productivity in the landscape. Seven different cases in different world regions are here reviewed to exemplify and evaluate (a) multifunctional production systems that have been established to meet emerging bioenergy demands, and (b) efforts to identify locations where the establishment of perennial crops will be particularly beneficial. An important barrier towards wider implementation of multifunctional systems is the lack of markets, or policies, compensating producers for enhanced ecosystem services and other environmental benefits. This deficiency is particularly important since prices for fossil-based fuels are low relative to bioenergy production costs. Without such compensation, multifunctional perennial production systems will be unlikely to contribute to the development of a sustainable bioeconomy.

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  • Heikkilä, K.
    et al.
    Pentti, J.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    Lallukka, T.
    Virtanen, M.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Bjorner, J.
    Borritz, M.
    Brunner, E.
    Burr, H.
    Ferrie, J. E.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Koskinen, A.
    Leineweber, C.
    Magnusson Hanson, L. L.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nyberg, S. T.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Pietiläinen, O.
    Rahkonen, O.
    Rugulies, R.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Steptoe, A.
    Suominen, S.
    Theorell, T.
    Vahtera, J.
    Väänänen, A.
    Westerlund, H.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Job Strain as a Risk Factor for Peripheral Artery Disease: A Multi-Cohort Study2020In: Journal of the American Heart Association: Cardiovascular and Cerebrovascular Disease, ISSN 2047-9980, E-ISSN 2047-9980, Vol. 9, no 9Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background Job strain is implicated in many atherosclerotic diseases, but its role in peripheral artery disease (PAD) is unclear. We investigated the association of job strain with hospital records of PAD, using individual-level data from 11 prospective cohort studies from Finland, Sweden, Denmark, and the United Kingdom. Methods and Results Job strain (high demands and low control at work) was self-reported at baseline (1985-2008). PAD records were ascertained from national hospitalization data. We used Cox regression to examine the associations of job strain with PAD in each study, and combined the study-specific estimates in random effects meta-analyses. We used τ2, I2, and subgroup analyses to examine heterogeneity. Of the 139 132 participants with no previous hospitalization with PAD, 32 489 (23.4%) reported job strain at baseline. During 1 718 132 person-years at risk (mean follow-up 12.8 years), 667 individuals had a hospital record of PAD (3.88 per 10 000 person-years). Job strain was associated with a 1.41-fold (95% CI, 1.11-1.80) increased average risk of hospitalization with PAD. The study-specific estimates were moderately heterogeneous (τ2=0.0427, I2: 26.9%). Despite variation in their magnitude, the estimates were consistent in both sexes, across the socioeconomic hierarchy and by baseline smoking status. Additional adjustment for baseline diabetes mellitus did not change the direction or magnitude of the observed associations. Conclusions Job strain was associated with small but consistent increase in the risk of hospitalization with PAD, with the relative risks on par with those for coronary heart disease and ischemic stroke.

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  • Düking, Peter
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Giessing, Laura
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Frenkel, Marie Ottilie
    Heidelberg University, Heidelberg, Germany.
    Koehler, Karsten
    Technical University of Munich, Munich, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institutet.
    Sperlich, Billy
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Wrist-worn wearables for monitoring heart rate and energy expenditure while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity: Validation study2020In: JMIR mhealth and uhealth, E-ISSN 2291-5222, Vol. 8, no 5, article id e16716Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Physical activity reduces the incidences of noncommunicable diseases, obesity, and mortality, but an inactive lifestyle is becoming increasingly common. Innovative approaches to monitor and promote physical activity are warranted. While individual monitoring of physical activity aids in the design of effective interventions to enhance physical activity, a basic prerequisite is that the monitoring devices exhibit high validity. Objective: Our goal was to assess the validity of monitoring heart rate (HR) and energy expenditure (EE) while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity with 4 popular wrist-worn wearables (Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa). Methods: While wearing the 4 different wearables, 25 individuals performed 5 minutes each of sitting, walking, and running at different velocities (ie, 1.1 m/s, 1.9 m/s, 2.7 m/s, 3.6 m/s, and 4.1 m/s), as well as intermittent sprints. HR and EE were compared to common criterion measures: Polar-H7 chest belt for HR and indirect calorimetry for EE. Results: While monitoring HR at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.09-0.62, 0.13-0.88, 0.62-1.24, and 0.47-1.94 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 0.9%-4.3%, 2.2%-6.7%, 2.9%-9.2%, and 4.1%-19.1%, respectively, for the 4 wearables. While monitoring EE at different exercise intensities, the standardized typical errors of the estimates were 0.34-1.84, 0.32-1.33, 0.46-4.86, and 0.41-1.65 for the Apple Watch Series 4, Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, respectively. Depending on exercise intensity, the corresponding coefficients of variation were 13.5%-27.1%, 16.3%-28.0%, 15.9%-34.5%, and 8.0%-32.3%, respectively. Conclusions: The Apple Watch Series 4 provides the highest validity (ie, smallest error rates) when measuring HR while sitting or performing light-to-vigorous physical activity, followed by the Polar Vantage V, Garmin Fenix 5, and Fitbit Versa, in that order. The Apple Watch Series 4 and Polar Vantage V are suitable for valid HR measurements at the intensities tested, but HR data provided by the Garmin Fenix 5 and Fitbit Versa should be interpreted with caution due to higher error rates at certain intensities. None of the 4 wrist-worn wearables should be employed to monitor EE at the intensities and durations tested. 

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  • Kristensson, Michaela
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Relationship between lower body muscle strength and explosiveness and degrees rotated in the double axel figure skating jump2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 C306/Online, Sundsvall
    Lindblom, Terje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Bakom bilderna: Bildjournalister och bildjournalistik i ett marknadsorienterat journalistiskt fält2020Doctoral thesis, monograph (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The restructuring of Swedish newspapers due to technological and economic changes in the last decade has hit journalists, and especially photojournalists, very hard. In 2017, Sweden's 165 daily newspapers only employed a total of 60 photojournalists combined, with 70 newspapers left with no photojournalist on staff at all. However, during the same time period the use of images in Swedish newspapers increased.

    Using Bourdieu’s field theory, the purpose of this dissertation is to analyse the positions of photojournalism and photojournalists in the Swedish journalistic field during a crucial and important time for the media industry, through 40 interviews with respondents in swedish newspaper as well as with freelancers in the field. The actors varied in age, gender and number of years in the field, and most importantly through different amounts of symbolic capital, in accordance with Bourdieu’s theory.

    The study shows that Swedish photojournalists’ ideal was to document the world and produce in-depth visual news stories. However, these time-consuming ideals comes into conflict with emerging market-oriented ideals described by other actors in the Swedish journalistic field. This also meant that although photojournalism itself is described as having an increased importance in the field, the photojournalists hadn’t received a correspondingly higher status.

    The study concludes that the commercial importance of photojournalism to the market-oriented journalistic field, as described by actors in the field, shows how it has become a professional boundary object which in turn exposes an on-going professional boundary work and symbolic power struggles between, on the one side, media managers, reporters and multi-skilled journalists and on the other side, photojournalists, concerning the doxa and ethos of photojournalism which in turn is affecting the professional position of photojournalists in the Swedish journalistic field.

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  • Bulale, Amina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Koroma, Nasumah
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Kvinnors upplevelser av behandling vid bröstcancer: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Bröstcancer är en diagnos som drabbar kvinnor världen över. Riskfaktorer påtalar att alltfler kvinnor förväntas insjukna av denna diagnos. Statistiken visar att kvinnans möjlighet till överlevnad är varierande samt beroende av landets tillgång till behandlingar.

    Syfte: Syftet med denna litteraturöversikt var att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av bröstcancerbehandling.

    Metod: Litteraturöversikten baserades på tolv kvalitativa vetenskapliga originalartiklar. Valda vetenskapliga artiklar analyserades enligt Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys.

    Resultat: Resultatet påvisade att kvinnorna upplevde känslor som bristande medlidande, stöd samt uppmuntran till delaktighet från hälso- och sjukvårdspersonal vilket enligt de försvårade hanteringen av behandlingen. Kvinnorna förklarade dessutom att dessa faktorer skapade känslor som ångest, oro, rädsla, ilska, skam samt sorg över den mödosamma livsförändringen behandlingarnas bieffekter medförde. Trots ökade överlevnadsmöjligheter beskrev kvinnorna att försämrad självbild var konsekvens av behandlingen vilket enligt de ökade den sociala isolationen.

    Diskussion: För att stärka livskvaliteten samt välmående hos kvinnan är det viktigt att sjuksköterskan strävar efter en kvalitetsfylld relation med denne, då detta ökar möjligheten till planering av den personcentrerade omvårdnaden. Med stöd av Antonovskys teori kan detta sägas stärka kvinnas förmåga till hantering av situationen, vilket kommer stärka hennes känsla av sammanhang.

    Slutsats: Omvårdnaden är väldigt komplex vid vård av kvinnor med bröstcancer. Som patientansvarig sjuksköterska är egenskaper som empati, förståelse, lyhördhet samt respekt väsentliga att besitta vid vård av dessa kvinnor. Samtidigt behövs kontinuerligt uppdaterade kunskaper hos sjuksköterskan för förbättring av vårdens kvalité. Författarna förespråkar därför att vidare forskning kring ämnesområdet krävs för utveckling av omvårdnaden samt för att skapa välbefinnande.

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    Bulale, Koroma
  • Ahokas, Karri
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Identifiering av värmekällor som kan minska behovet av direktånga i mixgroparna på Ortvikens pappersbruk2016Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    SCA Ortviken är ett pappersbruk i Sundsvall. Arbetets syfte var att identifiera åtgärder som leder till minskat behov att direktånga. Examensarbetet är delat i två deluppgifter.

    I december 2015 stängdes pappersmaskin 2 ner. Sedan dess har fördelningen av sju stycken värmeväxlare som förvärmer bakvattnet i papperstillverkning varit oförändrad.

    Direktånga används för att kompensera för värmebehov som inte nås med värmeväxlarna. Ångdata från pappersmaskinerna kartlagdes för att identifiera vilken fördelning av värmeväxlare skulle ledas till största effektivitet. Effekterna i värmeväxlare beräknades med NTU-metoden. Den effektivaste fördelning av värmeväxlare är den rådande fördelningen om inte värmeväxlare sju kopplas till pappersmaskin fem.

    Ångan från rejektraffinörer R81-R84 måste släppas ut i luften på grund av tryckförlusterna i den långa ledningen som leder ångan till ångomformaren. Syftet med uppgiften är att beräkna hur mycket ånga kan tas till vara på genom att leda ångan till en venturiskrubber som tar vara på värmen från andra processer.  Ångdata från bruket analyserades och genomarbetades så att ångflödet kunde simuleras med ett tryckförlust program, fluidflow3. Simuleringen gav resultatet att ungefär 17 500 MWh per år skulle kunna tas till vara på, om ånga skulle ledas till venturiskrubbern.

    Det har gjorts förenklingar i beräkningar och simuleringar men resultatet från uppgifterna ger en bra uppskattning på storleksordning på möjliga besparingar.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-12 10:00 F234, Östersund
    Linnell, Mikael
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Scenarios we live by: Theorizing anticipatory practices for societal security2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis explores and theorizes practices for generating knowledge and experience of possible futures in the present. Often, our unreflected everyday actions are clearly focused on the future. We plan future events into calendars, buy insurances, follow weather forecasts, and practice for performances of various kinds, all to reduce the uncertainties that the future brings. Various societal areas have developed specialized and systematic ways of generating knowledge in order for people to prepare for possible future events. A particular and extensive area is that involving societal security and preparedness for extraordinary events. The thesis explores various aspects of futures-making practices in the overall field of societal security, with a special focus on recent measures to strengthen the public's emergency preparedness. The overall aim is to deepen knowledge about the contemporary use of futures-making practices (such as imagination and enactment) and related techniques (such as scenario writing and simulations). Societal security and emergency preparedness have recently come to be recognized nationally and globally in ways that we have not experienced since the Cold War era. The empirical backdrop of the thesis tells about some major events that occurred during the first five years of the new millennium. During this period, a number of terrorist attacks and natural disasters occurred which greatly affected futures-making practices in areas related to societal security and preparedness. Following the 9/11 attacks in 2001, many actors in the security business began to implement new, or revived, ways of relating to the future. From previously focusing mainly on plausible events, interest now turned to possible and unexpected events. Following the criticized management of hurricane Katrina in 2005, a visionary work was initiated with the aim of creating an inclusive and all-encompassing culture of preparedness, a culture that would involve all sectors and actors of society, including the public. The examples may by from a unilateral American context, however the events can also be perceived as part of a global trend with local variations. A trend that includes new ideas about public participation in societal preparedness, as well as new ways in which we create preliminary representations of possible futures in order to prepare for them. In order to clarify different ways in which we relate to the future, I apply cultural geographer Ben Anderson’s (2010) classification of anticipatory practices. Anderson highlights three principal practices: imagination, calculation, and performance. The thesis explores how futures are imagined and enacted through the techniques of scenario writing and simulation, in four separate studies (articles I-IV). Studies I and II examine how imaginations of future emergencies are articulated in interviews with local safety coordinators and volunteers in Sweden, as well as in institutional exercise scenarios in the US. The first study shows how collaboration between the public and professionals is perceived as an ideal for managing societal stress and, furthermore, how various forms for organizing the voluntary public may facilitate for or interfere with fruitful collaboration. The second study investigates how governmental authorities has popularized emergency preparedness through a campaign aiming to prepare people for a possible zombie invasion. The study shows how the campaign makes use of a dynamic interplay between reality and fiction, realism and irrealism, and affirmation and distancing. Studies III and IV examine the meanings of spatiality, materiality, and affect in large-scale disaster simulations for the public. The studies are based on documents and observations collected and conducted in Japan and Turkey in 2014 and 2015. With the third study, I wish to contribute to existing debates on experience design and affective atmospheres in disaster simulation, while in the fourth study I explore enactment-based exercises and experience design through a lens of Foucauldian governmentality and spatial rationality. The four articles are given a common theoretical framework consisting of sociological perspectives on time and temporality, which highlight how the conditions for futures-making practices has evolved through changes in people’s relation to the future. The overall results in the thesis indicate that possibilities for the public to participate in enactment-based exercises are currently limited. However, when made publicly available, exercises are most often designed as entertaining, sensory, and affective learning experiences. Present imaginaries and enactments of negative futures are thus enmeshed with considerations regarding what is possible and probable, real and unreal, near and distant. Furthermore, facilities for public exercises are part of a complex apparatus involving political, economic, and educational perspectives, as well as aspects of entertainment, urban planning, educational technology, and public space.

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    Scenarios we live by
  • Public defence: 2020-06-11 09:00 Zoom, Sundsvall
    Beltramelli, Luca
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Random and Hybrid Medium Access for M2M Communication: Scalability and Energy Analysis2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The term machine-to-machine (M2M) communication identifies any fully automated communication between intelligent devices, autonomous from human intervention. M2M communication is a key enabling technology for the Internet of Things (IoT), where it is used to provide ubiquitous connectivity between a large number of intelligent devices. M2M technologies find applications in numerous emerging use cases, such as smart metering, smart cities, intelligent transportation systems, eHealth monitoring, and surveillance/security. The service requirements placed onM2M communication can vary greatly depending on the intended area of application. In general, M2M applications are characterized by the high number of devices communicating with one another through sporadic and short transmissions. The devices are generally distributed over wide areas without easy access to the power grid, relying for their energy supply on batteries and energy harvesting. Therefore, the design of M2M communication technologies should meet the goal of supporting a large number of connected devices while retaining low energy consumption. One of the obstacles to achieving this goal is the high level of interference that can be present on the channel if a large number of M2M devices decide to transmit within a short period of time. To understand how to overcome this obstacle, it is necessary to explore new and old design options available in the channel access of M2M communication. The aim of this work is to study the performance and propose improvements to the channel access mechanisms of M2M communication technologies operating in the unlicensed frequency spectrum. The two technologies discussed in this thesis are IEEE 802.11ah and LoRaWAN. The performance metrics that have been considered consistently throughout this work are the scalability and energy efficiency of the investigated channel access mechanisms, which are especially critical to massive M2M.The first part of the thesis focuses on the IEEE 802.11ah standard and its medium access mechanism with station grouping. An analytical model of the grouping mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah combined with enhanced distributed channel access (EDCA) is presented to assess the quality of service (QoS) differentiation available in IEEE 802.11ah. The throughput and delay of the access categories of EDCA are investigated for different group size and composition. The results reveal that grouping is effective at increasing the throughput of both high and low priority access categories up to 40% compared to the case without groups. A redesign of the access mechanism of IEEE 802.11ah is proposed to realize a hybrid channel access for energy efficient uplink data transmission.  The numerical results show that fora wide range of contending M2M devices and even for the relatively small frame size of 256 bytes, the use of an hybrid channel access can help reducing the average energy  consumption  of  the  devices  per  successful  uplink  frame  transmission.   In the  considered  scenarios,  the  proposed  MAC  mechanism  was  able  to  reduce  the average  energy  consumption  per  successful  transmission  up  to  55%  compared  to standard approach. The second part of the thesis focuses on LoRa, with an investigation on the performance of alternative random channel access mechanisms in LoRaWAN. The connection between the channel access mechanism and the intensity of interference in LoRa networks is characterized for pure Aloha, slotted Aloha, and CSMA channel access. The results reveal several assisting guidelines on the design and selection of a medium access solution within LoRa’s parameter space: device density, service area, and spreading factor allocation.  An out-of-band synchronization mechanism based on FM-Radio Data System (FM-RDS) is proposed to achieve synchronous channel access in LoRa.  The throughput and fairness results for the proposed communication show the clear advantages of synchronous communication in LoRa, meanwhile, the use of out-of-band synchronization reduces the usage of LoRa channels, improving the scalability.  The timing errors of FM-RDS are evaluated combining experimental approach and analytical methods. The observations reveal that despite the poor absolute synchronization, FM-RDS can effectively be used to realize time-slotted communication in LoRa, with performance similar to those obtained by more accurate but expensive time-dissemination technologies.  Finally, a comprehensive model of the interference in neighboring clusters of LoRa devices is proposed, highlights the disruptive effects of the inter-cluster interference on the transmissions success probability, particularly for the devices using the largest spreading factors.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-10 09:00 C312, Sundsvall
    Li, Yongwei
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Computational Light Field Photography: Depth Estimation, Demosaicing, and Super-Resolution2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The transition of camera technology from film-based cameras to digital cameras has been witnessed in the past twenty years, along with impressive technological advances in processing massively digitized media content. Today, a new evolution emerged -- the migration from 2D content to immersive perception. This rising trend has a profound and long-term impact to our society, fostering technologies such as teleconferencing and remote surgery. The trend is also reflected in the scientific research community, and more intention has been drawn to the light field and its applications.

     

    The purpose of this dissertation is to develop a better understanding of light field structure by analyzing its sampling behavior and to addresses three problems concerning the light field processing pipeline: 1) How to address the depth estimation problem when there is limited color and texture information. 2) How to improve the rendered image quality by using the inherent depth information. 3) How to solve the interdependence conflict of demosaicing and depth estimation.

     

    The first problem is solved by a hybrid depth estimation approach that combines advantages of correspondence matching and depth-from-focus, where occlusion is handled by involving multiple depth maps in a voting scheme. The second problem is divided into two specific tasks -- demosaicing and super-resolution, where depth-assisted light field analysis is employed to surpass the competence of traditional image processing. The third problem is tackled with an inferential graph model that encodes the connections between demosaicing and depth estimation explicitly, and jointly performs a global optimization for both tasks.

     

    The proposed depth estimation approach shows a noticeable improvement in point clouds and depth maps, compared with references methods. Furthermore, the objective metrics and visual quality are compared with classical sensor-based demosaicing and multi-image super-resolution to show the effectiveness of the proposed depth-assisted light field processing methods. Finally, a multi-task graph model is proposed to challenge the performance of the sequential light field image processing pipeline. The proposed method is validated with various kinds of light fields, and outperforms the state-of-the-art in both demosaicing and depth estimation tasks.

     

    The works presented in this dissertation raise a novel view of the light field data structure in general, and provide tools to solve image processing problems in specific. The impact of the outcome can be manifold: To support scientific research with light field microscopes, to stabilize the performance of range cameras for industrial applications, as well as to provide individuals with a high-quality immersive experience.

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    Computational Light Field Photography: Depth Estimation, Demosaicing, and Super-Resolution
  • Thuresson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    LEDARSKAP FÖR KVALITETSKULTUR: Fem förebilders erfarenhet av att skapa kvalitetskultur2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Exisg research shows that there is a strong connection between leadership andcreating quality culture for organizations' success. This study aims to investigate howleadership affects quality culture. This by finding out what conditions leaders need to bable to create quality culture, and what factors in leadership that promote or obstruct thecreation of quality culture. The study has a qualitative approach and has been carried outthrough literature studies and semi-structured interviews with five leaders who areconsidered being role models to creating quality culture within different organizations.The study indicates, among other things, that creating a culture of quality requires clearincentives, knowledge, agree management with insight and understanding of what itmeans to create a quality culture. Furthermore, the results show that it is a long-term,hard and difficult work. It requires structures that support a quality culture and trainedleadership. The obstructing factors that arise are detailed control, ignorance, ad hocsolutions and short-sightedness. The study's findings in many ways confirm the existingresearch that is in the field. The result shows that the creation of quality culture is often achange management and that it is complex, difficult and time consuming. It raise questions like; how do we ensure the knowledge and abilities required in organizationsto manage the complexity that it entails to create quality culture and how does the quality culture consist over time?

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  • Karlsson, Johanna
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Minkkinen, Kirsi
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Radikal Kundinvolvering: - innovativt samskapande för tjänstekvalitet2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Previous research shows that customer involvement can occur on different levels,where the highest ones have had effects like increased customer satisfaction,competitive advantages and improved introduction of new services for theorganisations. The purpose of the study was to develop a deeper knowledge ofRadical Customer Involvement within service development. The term was new tothe field of research the and few studies had mentioned the effects of deepercustomer involvement. The theoretical framework leads the reader from customerorientation within Total Quality Management, customer engagement and customerinvolvement to Radical Customer Involvement. The research method washermeneutic with an abductive approach. Qualitative in-depth interviews wereused to collect data. Four organisations that were considered working with RadicalCustomer Involvement were chosen for the study and questions involvingexperiences, effects and the future of the field were asked with the help of a semi-structured interview guide. The analysis was based on the questions of the study.Besides strengthening previous research, the authors conclusion showed that theorganisations combined different methods of customer involvement and thatRadical Customer involvement had positive effects on the organisations culture,communication and participation. It also helped raise the voice of customers thattraditional methods were unable to reach.

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  • Götberg, Jessica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvalitetsarbete inom högre utbildning: Framtagande av en modell för arbetemed utvecklingsprojekt inom lärarutbildning2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The latest year's review of the higher education institutions' quality systems carried out by theuniversity chancellor's office (UKÄ) shows that even higher education needs to work with itsinternal quality work and that the higher education institutions need to develop working methodsand methods for implementing it. The purpose of this work was to contribute with knowledgeabout how work with quality development looks within higher education and to develop a modelfor working with improvement and quality development in teacher education. The authorparticipated in a project work as an interaction researcher to develop a model for the work onimprovement and development work in teacher education. This study has contributed with theknowledge that higher education today works with the quality work based on the guidelines foundin the Higher Education Act, the Higher Education Ordinance and the Standards and Guidelinesfor Quality Assurances in the European Higher Education Area (ESG). The conclusion was thatthe model for working with development projects developed in the project work must follow theselaws, regulations and guidelines stated in the ESG and that the working method in the modelshould be cyclical and can be based on PDSA. Furthermore, the conclusion is that the model canadvantageously be based on offensive quality development and the cornerstone model and that ifthe learning within the organization takes place at all levels continuously, the model can supportthe work of a learning organization. This study may be of interest to others who want to learnmore about interaction research and for higher education institutions that are faced withdeveloping their own internal quality work.

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  • Croon, Jessica
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Kvalitetsutveckling och hållbar utveckling: Följeslagare på en resa som ständigt pågår?2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In recent decades, sustainability has become increasingly important at all levels ofsociety. Today's customers and stakeholders require organizations to includesustainability in their processes to a greater extent than before. System view of anorganization and focus on continuous improvement are central to both sustainabledevelopment and quality development, but synergy effects between them are arelatively new area of research. Business evaluation according to an excellency modelwhere both perspectives are integrated is a way of trying to achieve success. Throughcase study of an award recipient's quality development journey, answers were soughtby using semi-structured interviews in combination with document analysis on howquality development can support organizations to change towards a more sustainabledevelopment. The results show that the focus on culture and structure in anorganization and soft values is a way to go to achieve synergy effects between qualitydevelopment and sustainable development. There are great opportunities for anorganization that has well-established systematic working methods for qualitydevelopment to also apply the working methods for sustainable development and thuscontribute to meeting Agenda 2030.

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  • Nilsson Landby, Caroline
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Att praktiskt sätta kunden i centrum”: En utvärdering av en organisation som har implementerat ett agilt arbetssätt utifrån metodiken Scrum.2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    The research is based on the fact that there is a knowledge gap in evaluations of companies that implement the working method Scrum. There is a connection between the culture of an organization and how it can effectively and successfully implement an agile approach (Ilvari, Ilvari, 2011). The researcher did a semi-structured interview with employees. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the implementation of Scrum as a method and how the organization works with customer insights. The result shows that a majority of employees experience a higher commitment and greater motivation thanks to the new way of working. Putting the customer at the centre is something that requires a lot of focus. And much from the organisation's leaders. Here the organisation's leaders have been highly involved. Some improvement points were also identified in the research, such as systematically measuring and disseminating customer insights, developing the work of becoming a learning organization, and That the management does not work strategically with the organisation's culture.

     

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  • Kastbom, Josefin
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Olofsson, Åsa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Stöd efter en hjärtinfarkt: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Varje år insjuknar ett stort antal människor i en hjärtinfarkt. Många människor dör också av en hjärtinfarkt. Det är vanligt att få andra sekundära problem efteråt. Depression, nedsatt livskvalitet och trötthet är vanligt återkommande. Sjuksköterskans roll är att arbeta utifrån ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa personers upplevelser av stöd efter en hjärtinfarkt.

    Metod: Detta arbete har genomförts som en litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ design. Innehållsanalys enligt Graneheim och Lundman tillämpades vid analys av artiklarna. Artiklarna söktes fram genom två databaser, CINAHL och Pubmed. Totalt sammanställdes femton artiklar till resultatet. SBU:s mall för “kvalitetsgranskning av studier med kvalitativ forskningsmetodik” tillämpades under kvalitetsgranskningen.

    Resultat: Det var av stor vikt att de insjuknade kände att de fick tillräckligt med stöd för att kunna hantera den svåra situationen och för att kunna återhämta sig. De upplevde att de stöd de fick inte var tillräckligt. Ett ökat stöd från hälso- och sjukvården var viktigt för återhämtningen. Hjälp och stöd från familj, närstående och vänner samt stöd från att dela sina erfarenheter med andra lyftes också i resultatet.

    Diskussion: Personers upplevelser av stöd kunde kopplas till Antonovskys teori. Sjuksköterskan bar på en viktig roll i att arbeta utifrån personcentrerad omvårdnad.

    Slutsats: Personer som insjuknat i en hjärtinfarkt har ett ökat behov av stöd i olika former. Mer forskning och kunskap inom ämnet kan leda till att bättre stöd kan utformas i framtiden.

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    Kastbom, Olofsson
  • Gunst, Therese
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Larsson, Johanna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Opioider och en del av dess baksida: En litteraturstudie om erfarenheterna av att leva som missbrukare2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Opioid användningen har ökat både legalt och illegalt globalt. Det framgår att smärta är den största risken att utveckla ett missbruk, men man ser även andra riskfaktorer förutom fysiska så ser man även riskfaktorer som beror på psykiska och sociala faktorer.

    Syfte: Syftet är att belysa personer egna erfarenheter av att leva med ett opioidmissbruk.

    Metod: Designen i detta arbete är en litteraturöversikt som innehåller 16 stycken granskade och analyserade vetenskapliga artiklar med både kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Det huvudsakliga resultatet var att personer som missbrukar upplever stigmatisering både före under och efter avslutad behandling som påverkar tillfrisknandet och återfallsrisken. Bemötande i vården sågs som viktigt för både att påbörja en behandling, slutföra en behandling samt för att undvika återfall i missbruk. Stöd och förståelse från vården och samhället sågs vara viktigt under hela missbruket

    Diskussion: Personers erfarenheter av missbruk varierar när det gäller till exempel bemötande, behandling och stöd. Tyvärr är det mest negativa erfarenheter och för att ge missbrukarna den vård dom förtjänar behövs kunskapen kring missbruk ökas för vårdpersonal.

    Slutsats: Personcentrerad vård är nödvändigt för denna patientgrupp som är en viktig del i sjuksköterskans profession. Att få känna sig delaktig i den egna vården är viktig för att få bästa möjliga framgång.

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    Gunst, Larsson
  • Li, J.
    et al.
    Li, Y.
    Zhou, N.
    Xiong, W.
    Wang, G.
    Zhang, Q.
    Du, A.
    Gao, J.
    Kong, Z.
    Lin, H.
    Xiang, J.
    Li, C.
    Yin, X.
    Wang, X.
    Yang, H.
    Ma, X.
    Han, J.
    Zhang, J.
    Hu, T.
    Cao, Z.
    Yang, T.
    Yin, H.
    Zhu, H.
    Luo, J.
    Wang, W.
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing, 100029, China; .
    Study of silicon nitride inner spacer formation in process of gate-all-around nano-transistors2020In: Nanomaterials, ISSN 2079-4991, Vol. 10, no 4, article id 793Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Stacked SiGe/Si structures are widely used as the units for gate-all-around nanowire transistors (GAA NWTs) which are a promising candidate beyond fin field effective transistors (FinFETs) technologies in near future. These structures deal with a several challenges brought by the shrinking of device dimensions. The preparation of inner spacers is one of the most critical processes for GAA nano-scale transistors. This study focuses on two key processes: Inner spacer film conformal deposition and accurate etching. The results show that low pressure chemical vapor deposition (LPCVD) silicon nitride has a good film filling effect; a precise and controllable silicon nitride inner spacer structure is prepared by using an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) tool and a new gas mixtures of CH2F2/CH4/O2/Ar. Silicon nitride inner spacer etch has a high etch selectivity ratio, exceeding 100:1 to Si and more than 30:1 to SiO2. High anisotropy with an excellent vertical/lateral etch ratio exceeding 80:1 is successfully demonstrated. It also provides a solution to the key process challenges of nano-transistors beyond 5 nm node. © 2020 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

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  • Bakar, Muhammad Abu
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    A Modified Higher Operational Duty Phase Shifted Full Bridge Converter for Reduced Circulation Current2020In: IEEE Open Journal of the Industrial Electronics Society, ISSN 2644-1284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Besides many advantages, the reduction in the operational duty of traditional phase shifted full converter limits its scope in applications where a wide range of input voltage is the main requirement. Operation with low duty cycle extends freewheeling interval, which results in degraded performance such as more circulation current, increased conduction loss in power devices, narrow range of zero voltage switching and increased EMI. To overcome these drawbacks, this work suggests a modified phase shifted full bridge converter that keeps the operational duty of the converter high for a wide range of input voltage. This cuts the freewheeling interval and improves performance. The proposed converter consists of four low profile transformers having reconfigurable interconnection structure. There are two distinct reconfigurable modes, a low gain mode and a high gain mode, which can be adopted in accordance with the variation in line voltage. The proposed work is validated in LTspice simulation and hardware characterization for a wide range of input voltage 100-400Vdc/12Vout and up to the load power of 1.2kW.

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  • Public defence: 2020-06-05 10:30 Campus Sundsvall, Sundsvall
    Valan, Lotha
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Föräldrars användning av Internet för rådgivning avseende sina friska barns hälsa och utveckling och dess inverkan på Barnhälsovårdens konsultativa arbete: En studie i Svensk Barnhälsovård2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Becoming a parent is a life-changing event that can be both gratifying and scary. As a parent, one is responsible for another person, where there sometimes is a need for new information, knowledge, and advice to live up to the new requirements that a changing family situation requires. The ability to make use of information, knowledge, and advice can be related to the concept of health literacy that affects how people understand and make use of health-related information. The goal of Swedish child health care is to promote children's health and development and prevent ill-health in children, as well as support parents in the role of parenting. Child health care nurses follow the child's health and development until the child turns five years and is an important part of supporting the parents. Most of today's parents are born in the digital generation and the Internet is a natural source of information for increased knowledge. Parental health literacy can affect how Internet information affects them and their actions based on the needs of the children. At present, little is known about how the information flow from digital sources such as the Internet is used by parents and in the interaction with child health care. The purpose of this licentiate thesis is to generate increased knowledge about how parents use the Internet for health-related information related to their 0–6-yearold healthy children and how this may affect themselves and if so how this, in turn, affects the nurse's consultative work. The licentiate thesis includes two sub-studies: Sub-study I was conducted as a qualitative interview study with nurses (n = 20) active in child health care. The purpose was to describe their experiences and perceptions of parents' internet use. In the results, three categories emerged that highlighted the purpose: “The Internet facilitates care and access to care- and care information”, further “The Internet makes professional practice more complex” and finally “A need for a changing professional role for the child health care nurse". In sub-study II, a survey was conducted with parents (n = 687) who had children enrolled in child health care. The purpose was to describe parents' Internet use for advice and information related to health and child development for their healthy children and how the information was used in contact with child health care. Almost all parents (n = 686) perceived that the Internet was a good source of information for advice and information on children's health and development, but they expressed uncertainty about the amount of information and their own ability to search, sort and evaluate the information found. The results also showed that many parents 81.7% (n = 561) wanted support and guidance from their child health care nurse regarding internet information and web pages. The thesis results showed that parents need support and that the child health care nurses can both guide and advice to support parents through the established relationship between them. By supporting parents in this way, the child health care can promote parental health literacy. Based on the research carried out and to meet parental demand for advice on their children's health there is a proposal for a digital solution, a chat or a kind of digital reception where parents can consult the child health care nurse and confirm whether they thought right, or get additional advice and information, which would be an innovative proposal. The staff of Swedish child health care are in need of competence development, as well as tools in order to be able to support and promote parents towards health literacy. It seems necessary to develop adequate and quality assured digital tools as a complement to the present child health care which has its base in personal meetings. The tools could include the competence of supporting parents to search and validate information from evidence-based sources, as well as the incorporation of chat and videoconference possibilities between parents and child health nurses.

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  • Costache, Mădălina Elena
    et al.
    Frick, Andreas
    Månsson, Kristoffer
    Engman, Jonas
    Faria, Vanda
    Hjorth, Olof
    Hoppe, Johanna M
    Gingnell, Malin
    Frans, Örjan
    Björkstrand, Johannes
    Rosén, Jörgen
    Alaie, Iman
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Linnman, Clas
    Wahlstedt, Kurt
    Tillfors, Maria
    Marteinsdottir, Ina
    Fredrikson, Mats
    Furmark, Tomas
    Higher- and lower-order personality traits and cluster subtypes in social anxiety disorder.2020In: PLoS ONE, E-ISSN 1932-6203, Vol. 15, no 4, article id e0232187Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) can come in different forms, presenting problems for diagnostic classification. Here, we examined personality traits in a large sample of patients (N = 265) diagnosed with SAD in comparison to healthy controls (N = 164) by use of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) and Karolinska Scales of Personality (KSP). In addition, we identified subtypes of SAD based on cluster analysis of the NEO-PI-R Big Five personality dimensions. Significant group differences in personality traits between patients and controls were noted on all Big Five dimensions except agreeableness. Group differences were further noted on most lower-order facets of NEO-PI-R, and nearly all KSP variables. A logistic regression analysis showed, however, that only neuroticism and extraversion remained significant independent predictors of patient/control group when controlling for the effects of the other Big Five dimensions. Also, only neuroticism and extraversion yielded large effect sizes when SAD patients were compared to Swedish normative data for the NEO-PI-R. A two-step cluster analysis resulted in three separate clusters labelled Prototypical (33%), Introvert-Conscientious (29%), and Instable-Open (38%) SAD. Individuals in the Prototypical cluster deviated most on the Big Five dimensions and they were at the most severe end in profile analyses of social anxiety, self-rated fear during public speaking, trait anxiety, and anxiety-related KSP variables. While additional studies are needed to determine if personality subtypes in SAD differ in etiological and treatment-related factors, the present results demonstrate considerable personality heterogeneity in socially anxious individuals, further underscoring that SAD is a multidimensional disorder.

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  • Peric, Danijela
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Rimal, Pramila
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Bedömning och lindring av postoperativ smärta: ur sjuksköterskans perspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Postoperativ smärta upplevs efter ett kirurgiskt ingrepp. Det är en individuell upplevelse och kan leda till olika komplikationer, bland annat kronisk smärta, sämre sårläkning och mortalitet. Det är sjuksköterskans uppgift att bedöma och lindra den postoperativa smärtan.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskornas erfarenhet och omvårdnadsåtgärder för att bedöma och lindra postoperativ smärta hos vuxna.

    Frågeställning: Vilka olika faktorer påverkar sjuksköterskornas omvårdnadsåtgärder vid postoperativ smärta?

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats med 16 originalartiklar. Litteratursökningen utfördes från databaserna Cinahl och Pubmed. Innehållsanalys genomfördes enligt Graneheim och Lundman (2004) och integrativ analys enligt Friberg (2017).

    Resultat: Resultatet presenterar sammanlagt fyra huvudkategorier och tio subkategorier. Sjuksköterskorna använde sig av värmedyna, positionsändring och god kommunikation med patienten för att lindra postoperativ smärta. Det uppstod även olika hinder för att kunna bedöma och lindra postoperativ smärta. Till exempel otydliga riktlinjer, tidsbrist och kunskapsbrist.

    Diskussion: Det framkom vikten av att använda omvårdnadsåtgärder för att kunna lindra postoperativ smärta, såsom massage och distrahera patienten genom att vara närvarande. Utifrån sjuksköterskornas erfarenhet är tidsbrist och kunskapsbrist ett hinder för att kunna utföra god omvårdnad.

    Slutsats: Omvårdnadsåtgärder är en komplettering för farmakologisk behandling. Vidare forskning behövs för att kunna ge en god omvårdnad vid postoperativ smärta.

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  • Berglund, Celina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Ingerhed, Frida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Patientens upplevelse av opioidbehandling: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Försäljningen av receptbelagda opioider fyrdubblades mellan 1999–2014 i USA. Opioidberoende klassificerades som en kronisk medicinsk störning och ett missbruk utvecklades när dosen på läkemedlet inte längre kontrollerades av en läkare. Sjuksköterskan spelade en viktig roll i kontroll, uppföljning och utvärdering av opioidadministreringen.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa upplevelser hos patienter med kronisk smärta som utvecklat beroendeproblematik efter långvarig opioidbehandling.

    Metod: Detta var en litteraturöversikt med induktiv ansats. Kvalitativ och kvantitativ forskning användes för att sammanställa resultatet. Artiklarna analyserades via Graneheim och Lundmans innehållsanalys samt enligt Friberg. I resultatet inkluderades en artikel med mixad metod som analyserades enligt båda metoderna. Resultatet skrevs utifrån nio kvalitativa resultat och åtta kvantitativa resultat.

    Resultat: Patienter med kronisk smärta och långvarig opioidbehandling upplevde både en förbättrad och försämrad livskvalité. Patienterna kände sig beroende av opioiderna. Patienterna var oroliga för förutfattade meningar samt diskriminering för sitt opioidanvändande. Bristande stöd från sjukvården beskrevs och det upplevdes svårt att hantera sitt beroende. Psykiska konsekvenser framkom samt orsaker och samband till opioidberoende återfanns.

    Diskussion: En känsla av sammanhang var viktig för patienter med beroendeproblematik. De behövde få förslag på olika behandlingsalternativ för att bli delaktig i vården samt för att öka deras autonomi. Sjuksköterskan behövde stötta dessa patienter genom ett personcentrerat förhållningssätt.

    Slutsats: Denna forskning var viktig för att minska eventuella patientskador. Vårdpersonal behöver kunskap om patienters upplevelse för att kunna bedriva en god personcentrerad omvårdnad.

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    Ingerhed, Berglund
  • Ernberg, Leona
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Edlund, Mint
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Omvårdnad i det mångkulturella samhället: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Sverige är ett mångkulturellt samhälle vilket ställer krav på sjuksköterskans kompetens för att ge god omvårdnad. En persons kultur styr hur denne ser världen och vad denne anser vara rätt, i ett mångkulturellt samhälle behövs en förståelse för andra kulturer för att ha möjlighet att skapa goda förutsättningar för andra kulturer och inte para sin egen.

    Syfte: Syftet var att beskriva sjuksköterskors erfarenheter av att vårda patienter med annan kulturell bakgrund än sin egen.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ beskrivande ansats genomfördes och resulterade i 15 kvalitativa artiklar och en artikel med mixad metod som hittades i CINAHL och PubMed.

    Resultat: Kulturella skillnader påverkade interaktionen mellan sjuksköterskan, patienterna och deras anhöriga. Belastningen ökade i arbetet med patienter från en annan kultur och vårdtiderna blev längre för dessa patienter. Ord, påståenden och förklaringar kunde tolkas olika beroende på kultur. Det sågs vara viktigt att anpassa vården efter patientens kulturella bakgrund för att kunna ge adekvat vård. Sjuksköterskorna upplevde att det tog längre tid att skapa en relation med patienterna. En osäkerhet uttrycktes som grundades i bristande kunskaper om transkulturell omvårdnad.

    Diskussion: Vårdanpassning var viktigt för att skapa god omvårdnad till patienter från en annan kulturell bakgrund, för att kunna anpassa vården måste sjuksköterskan känna till sin egen bakgrund. Språkbarriärer var ett stort hinder för kommunikationen och kunde bli avhjälpt av teknik.

    Slutsats: Mer forskning skulle behövas i området för att skapa riktlinjer för god omvårdnad i det mångkulturella samhället.

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    Ernberg, Edlund
  • Borg Sundman, Alexandra
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Paulsson, Amanda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Marginaliserad vård för våldsutsatta kvinnor: En litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Våld mot kvinnor är ett globalt problem med många konsekvenser. Riktlinjer för att bemöta och hantera våld mot kvinnor finns både på en internationell samt nationell nivå. Detta fenomen är av komplex natur och resulterar i att våld mot kvinnor inte alltid upptäcks eller behandlas inom hälso- och sjukvården (HSV). Det är av betydelse att belysa kvinnors upplevelser av kontakten med HSV för att utifrån det kunna ge ett bra bemötande och ett optimalt vårdtillfälle.

    Syfte: Att belysa våldsutsatta kvinnors upplevelser av kontakten med HSV.

    Metod: Litteraturöversikt med kvalitativ och kvantitativ ansats gjordes för att se över det rådande kunskapsläget inom ämnet.

    Resultat: HSV-personal upplevdes inte ha tid att prata om våldsutsatthet och konfidentialiteten upplevdes att brista. Servicestandard och produktivitet upplevdes prioriterade och våldsutsatthet som underliggande orsak till att söka vård upplevdes inte uppmärksammat utav vårdpersonal. Vid vårdtillfället erhölls ingen eller otillräcklig information om tillgänglig hjälp. En bristande tillit till HSV beskrevs relaterat till kontakten med andra instanser samt ett bristfälligt bemötande vid kontakt med HSV.

    Diskussion: För att ge den våldsutsatta kvinnan ett optimalt vårdtillfälle krävs en förtroendefull relation för att kunna samtala om våld. Tidigare forskning har visat att HSV-personal beskriver barriärer till att samtala om våld och behöver utbildas och tränas i att bemöta våldsutsatta kvinnor.

    Slutsats: Vidare forskning behövs av våldsutsatta kvinnors upplevelser, specifikt av mötet med sjuksköterskan för att kunna utveckla denna professions arbete med kvinnors våldsutsatthet.

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    Borg Sundman, Paulsson
  • Korzhynska, Olena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Hussaini, Masouma
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Egenvård vid hjärtsvikt ur patientens perspektiv: en litteraturöversikt2020Independent thesis Basic level (professional degree), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Bakgrund: Prognosen för hjärtsvikt är allvarlig men modern läkemedelsbehandling och bättre poliklinisk uppföljning har förbättrat prognosen under senaste åren. Patienterna ska utföra regelbundna viktkontroller och medverka i doseringen av vätskedrivande läkemedel, patientutbildning om hjärtsvikt och egenvård spelade en avgörande roll för patienternas hälsa och välbefinnande.

    Syfte: Syftet var att belysa upplevelsen av egenvård hos patienter med hjärtsvikt.

    Metod: En litteraturöversikt genomfördes där artiklar söktes i databaserna PubMed och Cinahl, efter kvalitetsbedömningen inkluderades 14 vetenskapliga artiklarna med kvalitativ ansats.

    Resultat: Fem kategorier identifierades; att uppleva stress och rädsla vid utförande av egenvård, att sakna kunskap och information för utförande av egenvård, att ta hjälp av andra vid egenvårdshantering, påverkan på symtom i det dagliga livet och betydelse av kunskap relaterad till egenvård.

    Diskussion: Patienterna med hjärtsvikt upplevde brist på information och otillräckliga kunskap om sjukdomen. Påfrestningar vid emotionella upplevelser gjorde att patienterna hade svårt att hantera sin egenvård på grund av svåra symtom. Patienterna med hjärtsvikt engagerade sig vid sin egenvård genom att skapa hanteringsstrategier med hjälp av socialt stöd och kunskap.

    Slutsats: Det spelar en stor roll att sjuksköterskan har kunskapen om hur patienterna upplever egenvården, vilka strategier och hinder finns och hur de utvecklar engagemangen och motivationen. Det krävs mer forskningen kring detta ämne för att minska återinläggningar på sjukhuset. Genom en god information och utbildningen kan sjuksköterskan använda sig av pedagogiska kunskaper och resurser som kan utveckla till och skapa en undervisningssituation. Genom det kan sjuksköterskan stödja patientens egenvårdskapacitet, hjälpa patienterna att inse nyttan av att följa egenvård.

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    Korzhynska, Hussaini
  • Kachlami, Habib
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Davidsson, Per
    Obschonka, Martin
    Yazdanfar, Darush
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Lundström, Anders
    The regional employment effects of new social firm entry2020In: Small Business Economics, ISSN 0921-898X, E-ISSN 1573-0913Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    As a contribution to research and theorizing on the economic role of new firm formation, we undertake the first ever investigation of regional employment effects of the entry of new social firms. Our study is guided by an established model of the employment effects of new firm entry over time and provides a direct comparison to the employment effects of commercial entrants. Our results show that the net employment effect of new social firms follows a wave pattern over the study’s eight-year horizon, apparently produced by the same combination of direct and indirect effects previously theorized for new commercial entrants. The results also indicate that net employment effect per social firm entrant is larger than for commercial firms. The study provides a first empirical assessment of employment creation effects of new social firms and contributes to a more nuanced theoretical understanding of employment effects across types of entrants. By specifying the economic contribution of social firms our study can open up a new track in social entrepreneurship research and provide important input to employment policy.

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  • Rönnberg, Linda
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Tracheal Extubation of Patients Cared for in the Anesthesia Setting: Experiences Described by Registered Nurse Anesthetists and Anesthesiologists2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Background In Sweden, extubation is an interdisciplinary process involving teamwork between Registered Nurse Anesthetists (RNA) and Anesthesiologists, and comprehensive demands are placed on the professionals providing anesthesia. The extubation of the endotracheal tube after General Anesthesia (GA) is a critical moment for the patient. In that moment, the patient is in a vulnerable state and at risk of suffering severe complications, such as hypoxia, laryngospasm, aspiration, and hypertension. Anesthesia deals with identifying options, making risk assessments and reconsiderations. Clinical decision-making in anesthesia includes making decisions quickly and sometimes re-evaluating these just as quickly. In the often brief meeting prior to anesthesia, a relationship with the patient emerges and an unspoken demand arises: to care for the life that is placed in the hands of the anesthetists.

    Aim The overall aim was to gain an understanding of the Registered Nurse Anesthetists’ and Anesthesiologists’ experiences of their decision-making practices in the process of extubation of the endotracheal tube in the anesthesia setting with patients undergoing general anesthesia.

    Method This licentiate thesis consists of two studies (I, II), both conducted with a qualitative design using focus-group interviews (I) and Individual interviews (II) to collect data. A total of 20 RNAs from two hospitals and 17 Anesthesiologists from three hospitals were included, using a consecutive sampling strategy. Both studies were analyzed with qualitative content analysis and adopted an inductive approach to seek a deeper understanding of the phenomena, using manifest content analysis. In order to explore how the RNAs and Anesthesiologists experience the process of extubation and to identify nuances between them, the two studies were merged together in this licentiate thesis.

    Results When merging these studies (I, II) together by combining subcategories from both, six themes emerged. The theme, Assembling unique decisions, deals with the how the RNAs (I) and Anesthesiologists (II) assess, prepare, prevent and reconsider when planning for the extubation. Acting upon sensibilities consists of them recognizing patterns, leaning on their experience, and being receptive to different inputs from the patient and other professionals. The third theme, Being guided by intuition, included how the RNAs and Anesthesiologists relied on their feelings and were guided by emotions when deciding when to extubate. Safeguarding the patient deals with them protecting and acting as an advocate for the patient and how they focus on and are humble in the process of extubation. In the fifth theme, Being in a vulnerable position, the RNAs (I) felt they were on their own when making the decision on when to extubate, while the Anesthesiologists (II) felt as if they were one of the team. Using their own receptivity included how they established a connection with the patient and sensed the atmosphere.

    Discussion In their first encounter with the patient, or when obtaining knowledge about the patient, the RNAs and Anesthesiologists had already started to tailor a mental plan of the extubation unique to each patient. The plan consisted of small pieces of information being gathered and assembled together during the anesthesia, and this information is then combined with their experience of similar situations and with their intuition with the aim of safeguarding the patient. RNAs and Anesthesiologists act upon sensibilities when deciding on when to extubate. These strategies align with the concept of phronesis, a form of knowledge understood as practical wisdom that facilitates good clinical judgement in being rational, which is based on pre-understanding, experience, and interpersonal relationships and which is difficult to teach to someone else.

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  • Norberg, Malin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Från design till meningsskapande: En multimodal studie om elevers arbete med matematikläroböcker i årskurs 12020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines students’ work with mathematics textbooks in Year 1 (students aged 7–8 years) of Swedish elementary school. The aim of this thesis was to contribute knowledge about and an understanding of how students make meaning in their work with mathematics textbooks. Central to the thesis was the textbook’s designed meaning potentials, or the meaning potential needed to solve the exercise as designed, as well as the students’ meaning-making when working with the textbooks. With regard to the students’ meaning-making, interest is directed first, to the students’ specific meaning-making in the work with the textbook and second, to the students’ opportunities to take agency in the work with the textbook. This thesis was delimited to the area of subtraction in both printed and digital mathematics textbooks. The theoretical point of departure for this thesis was a design-oriented multimodal perspective (Selander & Kress, 2010). Interest was directed to the various resources for communication, or modes (e.g. Kress, 2010), in the mathematics textbook, such as images, mathematical symbols, moving images, writing and speech. Two studies were conducted: Study 1, Multimodal textbook analysis and Study 2, Students’ meaning-making. Two analyses were made in Study 1. The first was a descriptive textbook analysis mapping out the modes and subtraction in all Swedish Year 1 textbooks, totaling 17 textbook series, both digital and printed, and approximately 1,700 pages. That analysis was followed by a multimodal qualitative textbook analysis of 2–4 exercises from each textbook series according to its designed meaning potential. Study 2 examined the students’ work with mathematics textbooks. The data that formed the basis for the analysis were textbook pages, the teacher’s guides to the used mathematics textbook series, video material of 18 Year 1students’ work with these pages and representations in the form of studentresponses. The analysis involved a multimodal approach focusing on what mathematical content the exercises were designed to offer and what the stu-dents discovered when working with the mathematics textbook.Two articles were written based on Study 1 (Articles I and II), and two were written based on Study 2 (Articles III and IV). In addition to this, the data from Study 1 and the results from Study 2 were also analyzed using the concept of agency to further deepen the understanding of students’ meaning-making when working with mathematics textbooks. The results showed large differences between mathematics textbooks for Year1 in Sweden, regarding both how different modes are used and how subtraction is presented. The results also showed that the students’ work with mathematics textbooks differed. The students’ meaning-making was sometimes based on the designed meaning potential but sometimes not. Regarding images, the results showed that images could be particularly challenging for the students to interpret and that several students expressed that it was desirable to solve the exercises without using the images. The analysis using the concept of agency showed that exercises in which students could choose their working methods made it possible to take agency and that the students’ possibility for agency is affected by the prevailing notion that successful mathematics students do not use images but base their meaning-making on mathematical symbols. All in all, three conclusions were drawn. First, the mathematics textbook as a teaching resource could be developed, both printed and digital mathematics textbooks. Complexities can be detected more easily through greater awareness of modes as various forms of expression for the textbooks’ mathematics content. Second, the complexity of the students’ individual work with the mathematics textbook was highlighted. The students’ individual work should start from the basis of the exercise’s design, so that the students’ meaning-making can be directed to the designed meaning potentials. Third, for younger students to discover themselves as mathematical individuals, one must question the notions that mathematical symbols are the most important mode for young learners and that images are for those who find mathematics difficult. Based on these conclusions, questions can be raised concerning students’ potential for discovering themselves as mathematical individuals and whether the students’ self-discovery as mathematical individuals would differ if the mathematics textbooks more fully recognized students’ meaning-making using various modes. One question raised in relation to the students’ possibilities to take agency when working with mathematics textbooks concerned what knowledge is recognized in Year 1 mathematics textbooks. The results indicated that mathematical symbols already occupy a special position in Year 1. If modes other than mathematical symbols are more widely recognized as knowledge, then more young students will discover themselves as mathematical individuals.

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  • Biswas, Animesh
    et al.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A. K. M. F.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh; Bangladesh University of Health Sciences (BUHS), Dhaka.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research, Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka 1206, Bangladesh; Kumudini Medical College, Tangail, Bangladesh.
    Gestational diabetes: Exploring the perceptions, practices and barriers of the community and healthcare providers in rural Bangladesh: A qualitative study2020In: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy, ISSN 1178-7007, E-ISSN 1178-7007, Vol. 13, p. 1339-1348Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background and Objective: Gestational Diabetes Mellitus (GDM) is a prevalent and important disease during pregnancy and has detrimental effects on both the mother and the baby. The current study explored the perception and attitude of the community people about GDM and describes the challenges and gaps in knowledge, availability and accessibility of services for GDM screening and management at a rural community in Bangladesh. Methods: We performed a qualitative study including seven Focus Group Discussions (FGDs) and eight Key Informant Interviews (KIIs) from November 2017 to January 2018 at randomly selected areas of Tangail district. A highly trained team including two anthro-pologists conducted the qualitative studies (FGDs and KIIs) under the guidance of experienced researchers. Thematic analysis was performed. Results: GDM is not a known term for pregnant women, their husbands, mothers, and mothers-in-law. Most of the participants (78.7%) did not even hear the term. Some of them (25.5%) perceived that GDM will persist for whole life and transmit from husband to wife and mother to baby. Some people (21.3%) thought that GDM entirely depends on the wish of the God. Most of the participants (68.1%) perceived that symptoms of other types of diabetes and GDM are almost the same. Some participants (19.1%) thought that GDM patients need to intake some medicines that might affect the fetus. The majority of the respondents (83%) had no idea when a pregnant woman should test her diabetes during pregnancy. If GDM diagnosed, pregnant women decided to follow the advice of the doctors. The results from KII with health managers found that they lack in-depth knowledge of GDM. There is no structured guideline or protocol at their facilities for GDM management. Conclusion: The existing barriers at the communities for adequate detection and management of GDM are identified properly. The findings of this study will be helpful for the decision-makers in taking necessary actions to control the GDM. 

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  • Giritli Nygren, Katarina
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Olofsson, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Managing the Covid-19 pandemic through individual responsibility: the consequences of a world risk society and enhanced ethopolitics2020In: Journal of Risk Research, ISSN 1366-9877, E-ISSN 1466-4461Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At the end of March 2020, international media present Swedish management of the ongoing Covid-19 pandemic as soft and irresponsible. Thus, Sweden, which is usually regarded as exceptionally risk averse and cautious, has chosen an unexpected risk management approach. The aim of this article is to reflect on how the Swedish government has managed the Covid-19 pandemic until early April 2020 from two theoretical perspectives, the risk society thesis and governmentality theory. We make a brief review of how previous pandemics have been managed compared to Covid-19 and try to understand the consequences of the Swedish handling of present pandemic with a particular focus on the governance of the pandemic and the exercise of power rather than definite risk management strategies during the pandemic. 

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  • Flores Carmenate, Student 1, förnamn:Ginnette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Sustainable phytoremediation potential of locally adapted plants in the Chinandega region, Nicaragua2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In order to analyze the socio-economic and environmental system that is demanding soil remediation solutions in Chinandega region (Nicaragua), a DPSIR framework was used to model the system and to point out opportunities and limitations for phytoremediation applications in the region. An inventory of naturalized and autochthonous plant species was conducted while exploring their socioecological and economic co-benefits like potential candidates for sustainable phytoremediation strategies in Chinandega. Sustainable phytoremediation practices combined with agroforestry are unlikely to demand high cost inputs (if compared to conventional physicochemical soil treatments) but could potentially produce valuable socio-ecological and economic co-benefits which could enhance the cost-effectiveness of these practices in Chinandega (i.e. food production, fuelwood, building material, medicine, animal feed, carbon sequestration) among others (e.g. ecosystem services conservation, bioenergy production, essential oil production, phytomining, etc.). In the inventory of the existing vegetation in the two sites of study, 23 plant species resulted to be potential candidates for phytoremediation strategies in Chinandega according to the 9 criteria presented in this thesis. The capacity of POPs decontamination of these candidate plant species is still an unexplored field of research that would demand more detailed investigation in order to evaluate their further potential to phytoremediate these soils. However, the inventoried species clearly thrive in heavily contaminated sites which implies that they can withstand high levels of soil pollution, which makes them potential candidates for phytoremediation. The depth and scope of the contaminated soil layers, translocation patterns, phytoremediation capacity and the mechanisms involved calls for further investigations and feasibility studies based on this selected group of species.

     

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  • Martinsson, Josefine
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Norberg, Linnea
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Att vara föräldrar till ett barn med diabetes typ 1: - Från ett föräldraperspektiv2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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  • Li, Junjie
    et al.
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yongliang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Zhou, Na
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Guilei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Qingzhu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Gen Res Inst Nonferrous Met, State Key Lab Adv Mat Smart Sensing, Beijing 100088, Peoples R China..
    Du, Anyan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Yongkui
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Gao, Jianfeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Kong, Zhenzhen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Lin, Hongxiao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Xiang, Jinjuan
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Li, Chen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Yin, Xiaogen
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Li, Yangyang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Xiaolei
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Hong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Ma, Xueli
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Han, Jianghao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Zhang, Jing
    North China Univ Technol, Coll Elect & Informat Engn, Beijing 100144, Peoples R China..
    Hu, Tairan
    North China Univ Technol, Coll Elect & Informat Engn, Beijing 100144, Peoples R China..
    Yang, Tao
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Li, Junfeng
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China..
    Yin, Huaxiang
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Zhu, Huilong
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Wang, Wenwu
    Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China..
    Radamson, Henry H.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design. Chinese Acad Sci, Inst Microelect, Key Lab Microelect Devices & Integrated Technol, Beijing 100029, Peoples R China.;Univ Chinese Acad Sci, Microelect Inst, Beijing 100049, Peoples R China.
    A Novel Dry Selective Isotropic Atomic Layer Etching of SiGe for Manufacturing Vertical Nanowire Array with Diameter Less than 20 nm2020In: Materials, ISSN 1996-1944, E-ISSN 1996-1944, Vol. 13, no 3, article id 771Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Semiconductor nanowires have great application prospects in field effect transistors and sensors. In this study, the process and challenges of manufacturing vertical SiGe/Si nanowire array by using the conventional lithography and novel dry atomic layer etching technology. The final results demonstrate that vertical nanowires with a diameter less than 20 nm can be obtained. The diameter of nanowires is adjustable with an accuracy error less than 0.3 nm. This technology provides a new way for advanced 3D transistors and sensors.

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  • Gustin, Oscar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Nematbakhsh, Reza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Digitaliseringens effekt på arbetssätt och förtroende inom banksektorn - en kvalitativ studie2020Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This is a qualitative study that has its foundation in a social constructionist view. The purpose of this study is to analyze how work procedures have changed and how employees observe and perceive the influence of digitalization on customers’ trust and how risk and uncertainty play a role in it as a factor. We studied how employees at Nordea observe and perceive digitalization and its influence on work procedures and the effect on customers. Prior research has focused more on a direct affiliation between banks and customer trust, but we chose to focus our study on the employees at Nordea and their opinion of it. The gathered data from the employees at the bank has shown that digitalization to a great extent is an effective tool for both employees and customers. Flaws in services are always going to occur, but with the help of feedback from internal and external sources these flaws can be fixed quickly and effectively, but may at the same time cause uncertainty, especially at the beginning of a change. Risk and uncertainty are effects of digitalization and therefore have a significant meaning for the rise and fall of trust. This study can hopefully work as a foundation for future research regarding a similar topic.

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  • Li, Xiaotian
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Towards Large-Area Electronic Systems Using Non-Conventional Substrate and Conductor Materials2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Flexible circuits, also known as flexible printed circuit boards, were originally developed in the 1950s for interconnection between multiple electronic devices when flexibility and movement were required. Nowadays, flexible circuits can be used for implementing electronic systems much more complicated than just interconnections. A commonly seen material combination of flexible circuits is copper foils laminated on polyimide substrates, although these solutions are both expensive and environmentally hazardous. With developments in printed electronics, many non-conventional materials can be used in fabricating flexible circuits that have advantages such as increased flexibility, low cost, a small environmental impact, etc. In addition, fast and efficient manufacturing methods can produce flexible electronics in large volumes. This opens a window of opportunity to create electronic systems over geometrically large areas. This thesis proposes methods and guidelines for how to implement largearea electronic devices using non-conventional flexible materials and technologies. The thesis specifically focuses on electronic systems that integrate both digital and analogue signals. Further, it demonstrates and provides examples of how signals in the microwave frequencies, commonly requiring expensive materials, can be handled with non-conventional materials and technologies. Several conductor-substrate material combinations are used, which are fabricated using industrial processes. The conductor materials include conductive inks, copper foils, and aluminium foils, while the substrate materials comprise papers, a nonwoven fabric, and a polyimide. In particular, methods are investigated in order to achieve a low DC resistance in printed conductiveink-based tracks, which opens the possibilities for them to be used in highcurrent applications. Several surface mounting techniques are developed for incorporating surface mount devices within the fabricated flexible circuits, including the use of low-temperature solder paste, isotropic conductive adhesives, and anisotropic conductive adhesives. Some of the techniques have achieved sufficiently low contact resistance and adequate component bonding strengths, and thus can be used in implementing hybrid electronic systems. In addition, most of the techniques have the potential to be used in automated component assembly lines. As demonstrators, two antenna systems for commercial RFID readers operating at high frequency (13.56 MHz) and ultra-high frequency (867 MHz) iv Abstract bands are implemented, which comprise both digital and analogue signals. The two antenna systems are designed as part of SP4T switching networks using standard antenna elements as the loads of the network. It is shown in the results that both antenna systems have low RF attenuations, the potential to perform passive RFID tag positioning, and the possibility to be expanded to larger areas. Based on the characterisations to the two antenna systems, discussions are made about how large the antenna system areas can be as well as how many antenna elements can be achieved in a single antenna system. This thesis provides a material-to-system approach and demonstrates that non-conventional flexible materials and printed electronic technologies are suitable choices for large-area electronics.

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  • Hanstock, Helen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Ainegren, Mats
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Nikolai, Stenfors
    Umeå University.
    Exercise in Sub-zero Temperatures and Airway Health: Implications for Athletes With Special Focus on Heat-and-Moisture-Exchanging Breathing Devices2020In: Frontiers in Sports and Active Living, ISSN 2624-9367, Vol. 2, no 34Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Asthma is highly prevalent among winter endurance athletes. This “occupational disease” of cross-country skiers, among others, was acknowledged during the 1990s, with the pathogenesis attributed to repeated and prolonged exposure to cold, dry air combined with high rates of ventilation during exercise. Nevertheless, more than 25 years later, the prevalence of asthma among Scandinavian cross-country skiers is unchanged, and prevention remains a primary concern for sports physicians. Heat-and-moisture-exchanging breathing devices (HMEs) prevent exercise-induced bronchoconstriction in subjects with pre-existing disease and may have potential as a preventative intervention for healthy athletes undertaking training and competition in winter endurance sports. Herein we firstly provide an overview of the influence of temperature and humidity on airway health and the implications for athletes training and competing in sub-zero temperatures. We thereafter describe the properties and effects of HMEs, identify gaps in current understanding, and suggest avenues for future research.

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  • Larsson, Emelie
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Doing distance: expectant parents’ experiences of risk following a maternity ward closure2020In: Rural Society, ISSN 1037-1656, Vol. 29, no 1, p. 16-29Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This article explores expectant parents’ experiences of risk and distance following a maternity ward closure in Sweden’s northern inland. Interviews were conducted in 2017–2018 and the data were subjected to narrative analysis. Theoretically, the research adopts a feminist approach to space and risk, viewing both as simultaneously material and fluid, intersecting with categories such as gender, class, and centre-periphery. The longer distance to maternity care was found to engender other distances, such as social and political, which were associated with particular risks and power structures. In particular, interviewees referred to a perceived distance from staff at the new hospital that threatened to turn labour into an unsafe experience, and a perceived distance from political decision-making, prompting feelings of unworthiness and distrust. In different ways, navigating these risks reproduced gender roles, and the parents’ social position–including gender, marital status, economic, and social resources–shaped how they navigated the new situation. 

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  • González Escobedo, José Luis
    et al.
    Aalto University, Aalto, 00076, Finland.
    Uusi-Kyyny, Petri
    Aalto University, Aalto, 00076, Finland.
    Puurunen, Riikka L.
    Aalto University, Aalto, 00076, Finland.
    Alopaeus, Ville
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering. Aalto University, Aalto, 00076, Finland.
    Hydrodeoxygenation Model Compounds γ-Heptalactone and γ-Nonalactone: Density from 293 to 473 K and H2 Solubility from 479 to 582 K2020In: Journal of Chemical and Engineering Data, ISSN 0021-9568, E-ISSN 1520-5134, Vol. 65, no 5, p. 2764-2773Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Determining the H2 solubility in model compounds that represent lignocellulose derivatives is valuable for the study of upgrading processes such as hydrodeoxygenation. In this work, γ-heptalactone and γ-nonalactone are studied as model compounds at conditions relevant to hydrodeoxygenation. The solubility of H2 in the lactones was determined in the range of 479 to 582 K and 3 to 10 MPa. The solubility measurements were performed in a continuous flow setup based on the visual observation of the bubble point. Furthermore, the densities of the lactones were measured in order to provide the necessary data for the solubility calculations. The density measurements were performed from 293 to 373 K and from 0.16 to 9.9 MPa in a vibrating tube density meter. Using the measurements, a model of the density as a function of temperature and pressure was developed, obtaining average relative deviations on the order of 0.1%. Similarly, the Peng-Robinson equation of state with the Boston-Mathias modification was used to predict the H2 solubility in the lactones. A temperature-dependent model of the symmetric binary parameter of the equation of state was regressed from the data in order to improve the predictions. 

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  • Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholms Universitet.
    Franco, A.
    Balu, A. M.
    Tai, C. -W
    Luque, R.
    Cordova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Stockholms Universitet.
    Sustainable and recyclable heterogenous palladium catalysts from rice husk-derived biosilicates for Suzuki-Miyaura cross-couplings, aerobic oxidations and stereoselective cascade carbocyclizations2020In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 10, no 1, article id 6407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    A new eco-friendly approach for the preparation of sustainable heterogeneous palladium catalysts from rice husk-derived biogenic silica (RHP-Si and RHU-Si). The designed heterogeneously supported palladium species (RHP-Si-NH2-Pd and RHU-Si-NH2-Pd) were fully characterized and successfully employed as catalysts for various chemical transformations (C–C bond-forming reactions, aerobic oxidations and carbocyclizations). Suzuki-Miyaura transformations were highly efficient in a green solvent system (H2O:EtOH (1:1) with excellent recyclability, providing the cross-coupling products with a wide range of functionalities in high isolated yields (up to 99%). Palladium species (Pd(0)-nanoparticles or Pd(II)) were also efficient catalysts in the green aerobic oxidation of an allylic alcohol and a co-catalytic stereoselective cascade carbocyclization transformation. In the latter case, a quaternary stereocenter was formed with excellent stereoselectivity (up to 27:1 dr). 

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  • Nyberg, S. T.
    et al.
    Singh-Manoux, A.
    Pentti, J.
    Madsen, I. E. H.
    Sabia, S.
    Alfredsson, L.
    Bjorner, J. B.
    Borritz, M.
    Burr, H.
    Goldberg, M.
    Heikkilä, K.
    Jokela, M.
    Knutsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Lallukka, T.
    Lindbohm, J. V.
    Nielsen, M. L.
    Nordin, M.
    Oksanen, T.
    Pejtersen, J. H.
    Rahkonen, O.
    Rugulies, R.
    Shipley, M. J.
    Sipilä, P. N.
    Stenholm, S.
    Suominen, S.
    Vahtera, J.
    Virtanen, M.
    Westerlund, H.
    Zins, M.
    Hamer, M.
    Batty, G. D.
    Kivimäki, M.
    Association of Healthy Lifestyle with Years Lived without Major Chronic Diseases2020In: JAMA Internal Medicine, ISSN 2168-6106, E-ISSN 2168-6114, Vol. 180, no 5, p. 760-768Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Importance: It is well established that selected lifestyle factors are individually associated with lower risk of chronic diseases, but how combinations of these factors are associated with disease-free life-years is unknown. Objective: To estimate the association between healthy lifestyle and the number of disease-free life-years. Design, Setting, and Participants: A prospective multicohort study, including 12 European studies as part of the Individual-Participant-Data Meta-analysis in Working Populations Consortium, was performed. Participants included 116043 people free of major noncommunicable disease at baseline from August 7, 1991, to May 31, 2006. Data analysis was conducted from May 22, 2018, to January 21, 2020. Exposures: Four baseline lifestyle factors (smoking, body mass index, physical activity, and alcohol consumption) were each allocated a score based on risk status: Optimal (2 points), intermediate (1 point), or poor (0 points) resulting in an aggregated lifestyle score ranging from 0 (worst) to 8 (best). Sixteen lifestyle profiles were constructed from combinations of these risk factors. Main Outcomes and Measures: The number of years between ages 40 and 75 years without chronic disease, including type 2 diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Results: Of the 116043 people included in the analysis, the mean (SD) age was 43.7 (10.1) years and 70911 were women (61.1%). During 1.45 million person-years at risk (mean follow-up, 12.5 years; range, 4.9-18.6 years), 17383 participants developed at least 1 chronic disease. There was a linear association between overall healthy lifestyle score and the number of disease-free years, such that a 1-point improvement in the score was associated with an increase of 0.96 (95% CI, 0.83-1.08) disease-free years in men and 0.89 (95% CI, 0.75-1.02) years in women. Comparing the best lifestyle score with the worst lifestyle score was associated with 9.9 (95% CI 6.7-13.1) additional years without chronic diseases in men and 9.4 (95% CI 5.4-13.3) additional years in women (P <.001 for dose-response). All of the 4 lifestyle profiles that were associated with the highest number of disease-free years included a body-mass index less than 25 (calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and at least 2 of the following factors: Never smoking, physical activity, and moderate alcohol consumption. Participants with 1 of these lifestyle profiles reached age 70.3 (95% CI, 69.9-70.8) to 71.4 (95% CI, 70.9-72.0) years disease free depending on the profile and sex. Conclusions and Relevance: In this multicohort analysis, various healthy lifestyle profiles appeared to be associated with gains in life-years without major chronic diseases. 

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  • Karlsson, Rita
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Work place discrimination: Experiences and coping strategies: A qualitative study2020Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
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