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  • Karlsson, Karl-Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    New public management i arkivredovisning: Om Riksarkivets kommunikation kring verksamhetsbaserad arkivredovisning2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Uppsatsen är en kritisk diskursanalys av Riksarkivets kommunikation kring verksamhetsbaserad arkivredovisning utifrån informationen på riksarkivets hemsida, och med ett särskilt fokus på förekomsten av spår av New Public Management. Huvudmaterialet består av Riksarkivets FAQ, och som sidomaterial används även Riksarkivets allmänna föreskrifter.

    Utifrån analytiska begrepp som transitivitet, modalitet, intertextualitet med flera analyseras materialet för att komma fram till slutsatsen att Riksarkivets kommunikation inte innehåller några problematiska mängder spår av New Public Management, och uppsatsen skriver in sig i arkiv- och informationsvetenskapen genom att anknyta till det första steget som tas vid införande av verksamhetsbaserad arkivredovisning.

  • Olofsson, Andreas
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    Fridell, Ludvig
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Social Sciences.
    "Ögon i nacken": En fenomenologisk studie med avseende att studera upplevelsenav trygghet samt otrygghet hos personalen på ett äldreboende.2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In this study our aim was to discover which different factors, “what” and“how”, affect the experience of security (or lack thereof) of female assistantnurses, working in a retirement home consisting of pensioners suffering fromdementia. The study was conducted through semi-structured interviews withsome of the female nurses, using a phenomenological methodology. Thetheoretical approach was based off three different theories. Firstly, we madeuse of Segestens theory regarding the actual feeling of security and secondly astructural and psychosocial theory, and thirdly a gender theory. The premisebeing that the social and structural aspects might be factors that generatefeelings of insecurity. The study found that the majority of the nurses perceivedit to be the same factors, affecting both the experience of security andinsecurity. The greatest factor generating a feeling of security was found to bethe social companionship of the nurses, where as the greatest factors generatinga feeling of insecurity, were found to be the insufficient staffing of theretirement home, as well as the pensioners suffering from dementia.

  • Lidström, Nina
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Distriktssköterskans erfarenheter av omvårdnadsarbete av den dementa patienten. - En litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Ta Gonzalez, Lien
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Persson, Viktoria
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Faktorer som kan öka risken hos nyförlösta kvinnor att drabbas av Postpartum DepressionEn litteraturstudie2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hansson, Jennifer
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Häggblad, Marie-Louise
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Sjuksköterskans upplevelse av att vara ny- de tre första åren inom professionen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Henriksson, Anders E.
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences. Sundsvall County Hospital, Sundsvall.
    Lindqvist, Markus
    Sundsvall County Hospital, Sundsvall.
    Sihlbom, Carina
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bergström, J.
    University of Gothenburg, Gothenburg.
    Bylund, Dan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Identification of potential plasma biomarkers for abdominal aortic aneurysm using tandem mass tag quantitative proteomics2018In: Proteomes, ISSN 2227-7382, Vol. 6, no 4, article id 43Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Plasma biomarkers that identify abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) rupture risk would greatly assist in stratifying patients with small aneurysms. Identification of such biomarkers has hitherto been unsuccessful over a range of studies using different methods. The present study used an alternative proteomic approach to find new, potential plasma AAA biomarker candidates. Pre-fractionated plasma samples from twelve patients with AAA and eight matched controls without aneurysm were analyzed by mass spectrometry applying a tandem mass tag (TMT) technique. Eight proteins were differentially regulated in patients compared to controls, including decreased levels of the enzyme bleomycin hydrolase. The down-regulation of this enzyme was confirmed in an extended validation study using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The TMT-based proteomic approach thus identified novel potential plasma biomarkers for AAA. 

  • Wang, Bin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Realize Smart City Applications with LoRaWAN Network2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Internet of Things is an important part of realizing smart cities, this article introduces a proposal to build an Internet of Things system with LoRaWAN to achieve diverse smart city applications. There are three problems proposed and resolved in this research, how to maximize wireless devices’ lifetime with LoRa protocol characters, how to choose the gateways’ location for improving the efficiency and reduce costs, and about a good way to set up network servers to balance performance and consumption to implement in smart city applications. The IoT platform is built completely and running three applications on it in this research, Smart Parking, Smart Building Monitoring and Smart Sewage Monitoring. The methods of build platform and set applications are also explained in this article.

  • Skagerlind, Moa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    Falk Dahlin, Oscar
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Media and Communication Science.
    "Följ oss på facebook för senaste nytt"2015Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Problemformulering och syfte: Syftet med den här studien är att undersöka vad svenska rikstäckande nyhetsmedier delar på Facebook och på så vis se om det finns skillnader mellan olika typer av medier och vad de delar. När allt fler och fler tar del av nyheter på sociala medier ökar vikten av att veta vad för typ av nyhetsmaterial de får ta del av.

     

    Metod och material: Studien utfördes med en kvantitativ innehållsanalys av redaktionellt material delat på Aftonbladets, SVT Nyheters och Dagens Nyheters egna Facebooksidor. Materialet samlades in under perioden 27 november-3 december.

     Huvudresultat: Studien har visat att den största andelen av det delade materialet är nyheter. Däremot är en inte obetydlig del av innehållet på mediernas Facebook-sidor opinionsmaterial. Det ämnesområde som framförallt delas av svenska rikstäckande medier är nyheter som handlar om politik och ekonomi. Allra minst delar man sportnyheter. Om man vidare tittar på nyhetsvärderingskriterier är överraskning och underhållning bland de mest förekommande kriterierna. Jämför man medierna skiljer sig kvällstidning mest från de andra. De står för den största andelen underhållning och den minsta andelen nyheter om politik och makthavare.

     

     

  • Antoniou-Kourounioti, Rea L.
    et al.
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Hepworth, Jo
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Heckmann, Amélie
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Duncan, Susan
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Qüesta, Julia
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Rosa, Stefanie
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Säll, Torbjörn
    Lund University, Lund.
    Holm, Svante
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Dean, Caroline
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Howard, Martin
    Norwich Research Park, Norwich, United Kingdom.
    Temperature Sensing Is Distributed throughout the Regulatory Network that Controls FLC Epigenetic Silencing in Vernalization2018In: Cell systems, ISSN 2405-4712, Vol. 7, no 6, p. 643-655Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Many organisms need to respond to complex, noisy environmental signals for developmental decision making. Here, we dissect how Arabidopsis plants integrate widely fluctuating field temperatures over month-long timescales to progressively upregulate VERNALIZATION INSENSITIVE3 (VIN3) and silence FLOWERING LOCUS C (FLC), aligning flowering with spring. We develop a mathematical model for vernalization that operates on multiple timescales-long term (month), short term (day), and current (hour)-and is constrained by experimental data. Our analysis demonstrates that temperature sensing is not localized to specific nodes within the FLC network. Instead, temperature sensing is broadly distributed, with each thermosensory process responding to specific features of the plants' history of exposure to warm and cold. The model accurately predicts FLC silencing in new field data, allowing us to forecast FLC expression in changing climates. We suggest that distributed thermosensing may be a general property of thermoresponsive regulatory networks in complex natural environments. 

  • Jönsson, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    OPEN STORMWATER SYSTEMS FOR REDUCTION OF HEAVY METALS: AN EVALUATION OF COMMONLY USED DIMENSIONING METHODS2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    In Östersund there are a few stormwater ponds and oil separation units   connected to the stormwater network, but mostly there is no systems for   filtration of stormwater before it is released into a nearby lake which acts   as Östersund’s source of drinking water. In the Industrial area in Lugnvik there   is an oil separation unit connected to the stormwater network but no other   means of filtration. This study will be conducted as a case study for the   industrial part of catchment area 6 of the municipality of Östersund’s   stormwater system, where this area acts as an example to apply the   dimensioning methods on. Aside from grease (O/G) residues that might be   removed by the oil separation unit, pollutants such as heavy metals,   nutrients and suspended solids (SS) are present in the area. Which will make   its way to the lake trough the existing stormwater system. One way to   filtrate stormwater is to construct an open vegetated stormwater system,   where the water is filtered as it passes through the vegetation and/or   infiltrates to the ground and/or trough sedimentation.

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate some commonly used for Sweden   relevant methods for dimensioning open stormwater systems. The evaluation is   to see if the methods result in a system size that would give a satisfactory   removal of heavy metals, or if the methods is not suitable to use for   dimensioning a vegetated stormwater system if the purpose is to remove heavy   metals. The study should give answers to if currently and commonly used   methods for dimensioning open stormwater systems is suitable to use for   dimensioning of open vegetated stormwater systems by relating the results to   real examples when the purpose of the open stormwater system is to reduce   heavy metal concentrations. Further, the study shall help to identify   important factors that regulates the removal rate of heavy metals as well as   determine what particle size that should be targeted to reach a satisfactory   removal rate of heavy metals.

    A conclusion if   the dimensioning methods is suitable to use or not is difficult to draw as   the size of the system depends on what values that are used to calculate the   stormwater flow. Therefore, there is a large variation in the resulting   system size. To add to this uncertainty, the projection that is based on   measurements on real systems is not accurate as this only use the size of the   system in relation to the size of the impervious catchment area as a factor   for heavy metal removal. In reality this is not the case, which is indicated   by the R2-values of these projections. Other factors that in this study is   confirmed to have an impact on the removal rate is particle size, surface   load/flow, and in the case of vegetated filter strips the slope of the   filter. The particle size that should be targeted is likely within the range   of 45-65 μm.

  • Andoh-Appiah, Benjamin
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Sustainable Building Engineering.
    ComparativeExamination Of The Impacts Of Electricity Generation With Both Photovoltaic AndConventional Energies On Climate Change. The Case Of Mutanda Eco-CommunityCentre. (MECC)2018Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is a study on how Mutanda Eco-Community   Centre (MECC) in the south western part of Uganda can harness the solar   energy at their disposal using photovoltaic as compared to the using of   conventional energies in producing the needed electricity at the centre and   the impacts on climate change. Since the centre is used in education on   climate change mitigation and adaptation measures, it is expected that   anything the centre does or uses with regards to energy ought to come from   renewable sources such as wind, solar, thermal and biomass. Electricity has   been a great challenge because there is no access to the national electricity   grid. Since there is much abundance of solar irradiation in the entire   country, solar poses as a potential sustainable energy since it is a   renewable energy and has the greatest environmental benefits. The objective   is in two categories: to determine how feasible the photovoltaic technology   is in Kisoro and its application at MECC and to analyse the effects on   climate change with comparison with non-renewable sources of energy. To   determine the above, both qualitative and quantitative methods were used.   Results from the studies through the use of simulation method (PVGIS-5)   indicate that Kisoro, where the centre is located, has solar irradiation to   harness due to Uganda´s geographical location on the equator. Findings   revealed there are feasible governmental and private policies, market for PVs   systems, enough players in the Sector and the willingness of the people to   adopt and use solar energy, and its markets economic studies do reveal to be   the indicators for the feasibility of the technology in Kisoro. Corrections   of a few bottlenecks will increase the adoption rate of the photovoltaic   systems. An investment of 85,000, 000 UGX will aid a financial benefit of   4,569.40 UGX per each kWh of electricity generated with 3.1years of Energy   Payback Time and will prevent environmental pollution when compared with   non-renewable energy. Climatic effects are minimal as compared to the other   sources of energy. This greenhouse gases emission comes during the production   of the PVs, modules and systems. The usage of solar technology possesses a   lot of advantages. It is an unlimited source of energy; its maximum usage   reduces carbon dioxide emissions. International conflicts of ownership of   source of conventional energies are reduced and solar power creates energy   security and dependency.

  • Zubak, Zoran
    et al.
    Special Hosp Biograd, Biograd, Croatia; Univ Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Terzic, Admir
    Univ Tuzla, Tuzla, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Zenic, Natasa
    Univ Split, Split, Croatia.
    Ostojic, Ljerka
    Univ Mostar, Mostar, Bosnia & Herceg.; Univ Split, Split, Croatia; Acad Med Sci, Sarajevo, Bosnia & Herceg..
    Zubak, Ivana
    Univ Zadar, Zadar, Croatia.
    Jelicic, Mario
    Univ Split, Split, Croatia.
    Pojskic, Haris
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar.
    Are Sports-Related Factors Correlated to the Prevalence and Initiation of Illicit Drug Misuse in Adolescence?: Prospective Study in Older Adolescents2018In: BioMed Research International, ISSN 2314-6133, E-ISSN 2314-6141, article id 1236284Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Sport participation is considered as a factor of potential influence on illicit drugmisuse (IDM) in adolescence, but there is an evident lack of studies which prospectively investigated this problem. This study aimed to prospectively investigate the sports-related factors related to IDM and the initiation of IDM among older adolescents. The participants were 436 adolescents (202 females; 16 years old at study baseline). They were tested at baseline and follow-up (two years later). The predictors included variables associated with different facets of sports participation and success in sports. The criteria were (i) baseline IDM, (ii) follow-up IDM, and (iii) initiation of IDM between baseline and follow-up. Crude and adjusted (controlled for parental conflict, age, socioeconomic status, and gender) logistic regressions were applied to establish correlations between predictors and criteria. There were higher odds for baseline IDM in adolescents who quit individual sports (OR: 4.2, 95% CI: 1.3-13.9), who had better competitive sports achievements (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.0-3.3), and those involved in sports for a longer time (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.0-2.5). The IDM at follow-up was more prevalent in adolescents who were involved in sports for a longer time (OR: 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1-2.6). Initiation of drug use was predicted by longer experience in sports (OR: 1.8, 95% CI: 1.1-3.1). Sports-related factors were more negatively than positively related to illicit drug use. Most probably, the transition from junior to senior level in sports put specific stress on those adolescents who were highly committed to sports until that time, but who then had to question their own sports abilities and future potential in sports. Sport-authorities should be informed on established results and specific public-health efforts aimed at preventing IDM in athletic adolescents are urgently needed.

  • Pojskic, Haris
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Linnaeus Univ, Kalmar.
    Eslami, Bahareh
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Relationship Between Obesity, Physical Activity, and Cardiorespiratory Fitness Levels in Children and Adolescents in Bosnia and Herzegovina: An Analysis of Gender Differences2018In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 9, article id 1734Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study aimed to examine: (i) the level of physical activity (PA), obesity indices and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) among boys and girls in primary school, and (ii) to determine the association of obesity indices and PA with CRF for the total number of participants, and then separately for boys and girls. 753 sixth to ninth grade girls and boys aged 10-14 years took part in this cross-sectional study. The PA was assessed by the "Physical Activity Questionnaire - Children" and CRF was assessed by the Maximal multistage a 20 m shuttle run test. Body mass index (BMI), waist circumferences (WC), and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were considered as obesity indices. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to explore correlates of CRF. The results obtained showed the prevalence of general overweight and obesity was 25.5% in our sample which was lower than that in the regional estimate (e.g., similar to 28%) for Eastern Europe. Among all participants, CRF was associated with male sex, older age, a lower WC percentile, higher WHtR, and higher level of PA. The model accounted for 24% of the variance. CRF was associated with older age and higher level of PA among girls and boys. Lower WC percentile was a significant determinant of CRF among boys. In conclusion, general overweight/obesity was not independently associated with CRF. Those with better CRF were more likely to be male and older, had a higher level of PA and lower central adiposity. These findings emphasize the importance of supporting school age children to take a part in programmed physical activity regardless of their body composition.

  • Skoglund, Wilhelm
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Business, Economics and Law.
    Laven, Daniel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Tourism Studies and Geography.
    Cultura, Creatività E Agenda Di Sostenibilità: L'Esperienza Di Östersund Nella Rete Delle Città Creative Dell'UNESCO2018In: LaborEst, ISSN 1973-7688, no 17, p. 10-14Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Culture, Creativity, and the Sustainability Agenda: the Experience of Östersund in the UNESCO Creative Cities Network

    During the last decade, cities around the world have promoted creativity as a resource for regeneration and new development. As a result, a number of efforts have emerged around this theme and many cities today seek to identify themselves as “creative hubs”. The UNESCO Creative Cities Network (UCCN) is one example of a network of cities that attempts to use creativity as a mechanism to achieve sustainable growth and development as envisioned by Agenda 2030. The network has grown rapidly since its inception in 2004 and now has 180 members worldwide that have all adopted the UCCN guidelines and directives. In this paper, the authors explore the connections between membership in the network and implementation of sustainable development goals. The paper uses the northern Swedish city of Östersund as a case study, which has been an active member of the UCCN since 2010. Study findings indicate that membership in the UCCN has enabled Östersund to advance sustainability discourse at a regional level, as well as improved practice in a limited sense. At the same time, findings also identify a number of challenges for integrating sustainability objectives at the regional level as well as directly into the UCCN.

  • Sandström, Moa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digitalt långtidsbevarande: Hanteringen och en lägesbeskrivning av utvecklingen2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [sv]

    Denna uppsats skall fungera som en avstämning över hur långt vi kommit i utvecklingen av digitalt långtidsbevarande och hur vi på bästa sätt idag kan hantera denna typ av bevarande genom att beakta några viktiga delar. Detta är fortfarande ett problem i arkivvärlden eftersom det finns flera frågetäcken runt detta område. Eftersom teknikvärlden är skör och de databärare vi använder idag inte håller lika länge som vi vill kunna bevara information behöver vi förnya den i omgångar. Denna hanteringsprocess kan gå till på flera olika sätt och de kräver noga uttänkta metoder för att inte riskera att skada informationen. För att ett objekt skall kunna bevaras under en lång period finns det områden som lämpligen kan följa vissa riktlinjer. De delar som bland annat påverkar bevarandet är vilken metadata och övrig information som kopplas till objektet, vilken teknik man använder sig utav, hur olika värderingar kan underlätta i processen, hur styrningen i organisationen kan fungera och hur man styr hanteringen samt säkerheten som behöver råda kring objekten och organisationen. Denna uppsats innehåller den inledande processen i digitalt långtidsbevarande för att den fullständiga processen inte skulle visa ett resultat förrän om ca.50 år då vi kan se en produkt av denna typ av bevarande. Denna undersökning bygger till största del en litteraturstudie och för att komplettera ytterligare valde jag att göra intervjuer/enkäter med passande organisationer för att se hur det fungerar för dem. För att få ett bättre sammanhang i textens genomgång utgår den från OAIS modellen och därför refererar de olika delarna tillbaka till den genom texten. Detta skall göra att läsaren lättare ser en röd tråd på hur delarna samspelar med varandra. Uppsatsen avslutas med ett hanteringsförslag där jag dragit slutsatser från de olika delarna som utgör uppsatsens innehåll och en jämförelse mellan myndigheterna.

  • Boström, Lena
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sjöström, Mårten
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Karlsson, Håkan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Sundgren, Marcus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Andersson, Mattias
    Olsson, Roger
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Åhlander, Jimmy
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Information Systems and Technology.
    Digital visualisering i skolan: Mittuniversitetets slutrapport från förstudien2018Report (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Den här studiens syfte har varit tvåfaldigt, nämligen att testa alternativa lärmetoder via ett digitalt läromedel i matematik i en kvasiexperimentell studie samt att tillämpa metoder av användarupplevelser för interaktiva visualiseringar, och därigenom öka kunskapen kring hur upplevd kvalitet beror på använd teknik. Pilotstudien sätter också fokus på flera angelägna områden inom skolutveckling både regionalt och nationellt samt viktiga aspekter när det gäller kopplingen teknik, pedagogik och utvärderingsmetoder inom “den tekniska delen”. Det förra handlar om sjunkande matematikresultat i skolan, praktiknära skolforskning, stärkt digital kompetens, visualisering och lärande samt forskning om visualisering och utvärdering. Den senare svarar på frågor om vilka tekniska lösningar som tidigare använts och med vilket syfte har de skapats samt hur visualiseringar har utvärderats enligt läroböcker och i forskningslitteratur.

     

    När det gäller elevernas resultat, en av de stora forskningsfrågorna i studien, så fann vi inga signifikanta skillnader mellan traditionell undervisning och undervisning med visualiseringsläromedlet (3D). Beträffande elevers attityder till matematikmomentet kan konstateras att i kontrollgruppen för årskurs 6 förbättrades attityden signifikans, men inte i klass 8. Gällande flickors och pojkars resultat och attityder kan vi konstatera att flickorna i båda klasserna hade bättre förkunskaper än pojkarna samt att i årskurs 6 var flickorna mer positiva till matematikmomentet än pojkarna i kontrollgruppen. Därutöver kan vi inte skönja några signifikanta skillnader. Andra viktiga rön i studien var att provkonstruktionen inte var optimal samt att tiden för provgenomförande har stor betydelse när på dagen det genomfördes. Andra resultat resultaten i den kvalitativa analysen pekar på positiva attityder och beteenden från eleverna vid arbetet med det visuella läromedlet. Elevernas samarbete och kommunikation förbättrades under lektionerna. Vidare pekade lärarna på att med 3D-läromedlet gavs större möjligheter till att stimulera flera sinnen under lärprocessen. En tydlig slutsats är att 3D-läromedlet är ett viktigt komplement i undervisningen, men kan inte användas helt självt.

     

    Vi kan varken sälla oss till de forskare som anser att 3D-visualisering är överlägset som läromedel för elevers resultat eller till de forskare som varnar för dess effekter för elevers kognitiva överbelastning.  Våra resultat ligger mer i linje med de slutsatser Skolforskningsinstitutet (2017) drar, nämligen att undervisning med digitala läromedel i matematik kan ha positiva effekter, men en lika effektiv undervisning kan möjligen designas på andra sätt. Däremot pekar resultaten i vår studie på ett flertal störningsmoment som kan ha påverkat möjliga resultat och behovet av god teknologin och välutvecklade programvaror.

     

    I studien har vi analyserat resultaten med hjälp av två övergripande ramverk för integrering av teknikstöd i lärande, SAMR och TPACK. Det förra ramverket bidrog med en taxonomi vid diskussionen av hur väl teknikens möjligheter tagits tillvara av läromedel och i läraktiviteter, det senare för en diskussion om de didaktiska frågeställningarna med fokus på teknikens roll. Båda aspekterna är högaktuella med tanke på den ökande digitaliseringen i skolan.

     

    Utifrån tidigare forskning och denna pilotstudie förstår vi att det är viktigt att designa forskningsmetoderna noggrant. En randomisering av grupper vore önskvärt. Prestandamått kan också vara svåra att välja. Tester där personer får utvärdera användbarhet (usability) och användarupplevelse (user experience, UX) baserade på både kvalitativa och kvantitativa metoder blir viktiga för själva användandet av tekniken, men det måste till ytterligare utvärderingar för att koppla tekniken och visualiseringen till kvaliteten i lärandet och undervisningen. Flera metoder behövs således och det blir viktigt med samarbete mellan olika ämnen och discipliner.