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  • Persson, Lovisa
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Moalim, Hanan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Mötet med HIV-smittade patienter: Utifrån sjuksköterskeperspektiv2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Azhar, Abu Bakr Nadeem
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    Effects of Perceived Risks on Online Shopping Behavior2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    Online shopping is rapidly expanding across the globe including developing markets. The consumer is under the perception of different types of risks associated with online shopping which may damage him. For that matter, researchers have continuously made efforts to investigate different types of perceived risks to establish and correct for consumer and societal benefits. After review of the research articles, some gaps were observed; 1) previous studies treat buyers and non-buyers in the same way as a single unit and there is no comparison among them, 2) most of the studies are quantitative thus focusing on the measurement of the responses yet there is a lack of qualitative work which may express how these people are affected, 3) there is a lack of documentation of personal bad experiences of online buyers (non-buyers), 4) customer service and complaint handling are not exposed to existential confirmation and research in academic studies, and 5) most of the studies reviewed for this research are based on a ‘special segment’ of students aged 18-34, contributing from 65% to 93% of responses which give biased results. To do the research the theory of Perceived Risks was used as a frame of reference to develop an analysis model with Consumer Behavior Theory in the context for online shopping.This study took on these areas and a Quasi-qualitative approach was used including Quasi-statistics by making a purposeful sample based on convenience and snow-ball techniques to fulfill the purpose of the study. A total of 11 one-on-one interviews were made to conclude seeing saturation level. Study shows that i) buyers and non-buyers are two different units of the population with different but comparable attitudes ii) despite perception of risks, buyers continue to keep shopping online, iii) non-buyers have either a bad subjective experience or have technological problem and they are aged more than 30, iv) the bad experiences of buyers and (currently) non-buyers tell about card hacking, bad product, non-delivery, and theft, v) customer service and complaint handling both, are areas which have poor quality and bad coordination, and vi) a new construct of perceived risks, ‘dream-damage’ is found in the context of online shopping.

  • Johansson, Maria
    et al.
    Lund University, Lund.
    Hallgren, Lars
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Uppsala.
    Flykt, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Støen, Ole-Gunnar
    Norwegian Institute for Nature Research (NINA), Trondheim, Norway.
    Thelin, Linda
    Rovdjurscentret De 5 Stora, Järvsö.
    Frank, Jens
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, Riddarhyttan.
    Communication Interventions and Fear of Brown Bears: Considerations of Content and Format2019In: Frontiers in Ecology and Evolution, E-ISSN 2296-701X, Vol. 7, article id 475Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Communication interventions are commonly proposed as a way to address people's fear and negative attitudes to build tolerance in shared landscapes between humans and large carnivores. Therefore, managing authorities sometimes respond to people's fear of brown bears (Ursus arctos) by organizing an information meeting. This study increases the understanding of the information meeting to address fear of encountering brown bears. Using a mixed-method approach the study analyzes the explicit meta-communication, i.e., verbal interactions to coordinate communication between presenter and participants, the effects of the meeting on fear and fear-related variables over time, and how these effects compare with the effects of a visit to a permanent brown bear exhibition, and the effects of a guided walk with exposure to brown bears and their habitat as two alternative communication interventions. Participation in information meetings contributed to reduce self-reported fear and the effect lasted over at least 6 months. The information meetings were, as assessed immediately after participation, less efficient than participation in a guided walk, but more efficient than a visit to a permanent brown bear exhibition in reducing fear. The content and format of the meeting was in line with the expectations of an information meeting, e.g., the presenter dominated the initiative in the explicit meta-communication, but still allowing for misconceptions and misunderstandings to be addressed and solved. In the development of communication strategies to address fear of large carnivores, managing authorities should pay attention to details in information content and format as well as to trade-offs between the number of people reached by the intervention and the strength of the effects on fear and fear-related variables among participants. 

  • An, Siwen
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Norlin, Börje
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Hummelgård, Magnus
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Thungström, Göran
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Comparison of Elemental Analysis Techniques for Fly Ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incineration using X-rays and Electron Beams2019In: IOP Conference Series: Earth and Environmental Science, Institute of Physics (IOP), 2019, Vol. 337, no 1, article id 012007Conference paper (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    With the rapid expansion of the waste incineration business both in Europe and globally, there is a growing need for the elemental analysis for fly ash from municipal solid waste incineration. In this work, samples of washed and unwashed ash from municipal solid waste incineration in Sundsvall are evaluated. Qualitative analysis and semi-quantitative analysis are used to compare two elemental analysis methods, scanning electron microscope with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) measurement. Both methods are used to retrieve the difference in elemental composition between washed and unwashed fly ash. SEM-EDS accurately detects light elements from well-prepared samples in a vacuum environment, while, for online measurements, XRF is a potential method that analyses hazardous metal content in the fly ash. 

  • Wallin Berg, Ida
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Framtagning och applicering av förbrukningsindikator på fuktabsorbent: Ett produktutvecklingsarbete för Smellwell AB2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This bachelor thesis has been carried out on behalf of Smellwell AB and aims at product development of their product. Smellwell manufactures and sells moisture absorbing bags with a fresh scent for use in shoes and sports equipment. The aim of this work was to produce and apply a consumption indicator to their moisture absorbers. Today it is difficult to determine when the product is consumed, which can lead to many customers using the product for to long. This can lead to a poorer user experience. The purpose of the work is therefore to increase customer value by offering the customer a way to always know when it is time to replace their product for maximum effect. The problem was divided into two sub-problems that were resolved separately. First, an appropriate indicator was developed and three application methods were created through a product development process. In the process of developing the application methods two different 3D-printers were used, a Makerbot Replicator+ and an Objet Eden 260v. The work resulted in a 6-month’s time indicator from the English company Timestrip® UK Ltd and three different holders for application at different positions on the moisture absorber. The results have been evaluated by a focus group and proposals for cost and future manufacturing methods have been specified Concept 2 and Concept 3 got the best rating in the evaluation and will be recommended to Smellwell to proceed with.

  • Persson, Isabelle
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ångpermabilitet för skaltyger: Ett utredande arbete mellan två testmetoder2018Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This report describes the investigative work carried out on a new test opportunitythat measures the water vapor permeability of textiles for the purpose of qualitycontrol. Water vapor permeability is a garments ability of transfer moisture. Thisnew test rig, established by Mid Sweden University, can simulate conditions thatresemble more like the actual use of shell garments, compared with the ISO-standard test for water vapor permeability used in Mid Sweden University today.The purpose with the project was to perform tests on the new test rig and comparethe outer fabric´s impact on the membrane as well as evaluate and compare theresults from the ISO-standard test. Furthermore have four different base layerfabrics been tested with the goal of being able to evaluate their impact on themembrane fabric. The goal of this project was to carry out these tests as well asevaluate the results and the properties of the materials.The introduction of the project gave basic knowledge of shell garments,membranes and other different materials and this knowledge was valuable for laterevaluation of the given results. The study was then followed by a planning of thetest that was to be carried out and finally an implementation of two different testrounds in the new test rig and one test round in the ISO-standard test. A test for thedetermination of the permeability of fabrics to air was also carried out as anotherfactor to evaluate different characteristics of the base layers. The results from alltests was analyzed and evaluated to reach conclusions about all materials and whataffects them.The result showed that the membrane fabrics does not work at the same way whenthe ambient and the internal temperature changes. Also, the result from the new testrig was not the same as the result from the ISO-standard test. The result from thetest with the base layers was more difficult to analyze and a greater width of thematerials and also another location of the sensors perhaps would make it easier toanalyze.The purpose and goal with this project have been achieved and analyses have beencompleted.

  • Jonasson, Jack
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Ottosson, Jens
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Quality Management and Mechanical Engineering.
    Utveckling av insatsmodul till en Arcam S12 EBM-maskin: För möjliggörande av småskaliga tester med mindre pulveråtgång2019Independent thesis Basic level (degree of Bachelor), 10 credits / 15 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis work is focused on the product development of an insert module for an ARCAM S12 Electron Beam Melting machine

    The need for an insert module comes from the fact that the machine requires a full tank of building material to operate as intended. With concern to the large building volume the original machine cannot be seen as a viable alternative for materials research, because such research often uses expensive experimental materials. The goal for the module is therefore to lower the use of building material, and trough that make the machine viable for materials research without permanently affecting the original function. Another important function of the new module is the possibility to control and synchronize the amount of material dispensed between layers of the build.  

     

    During the length of the thesis, the entire development process of the module is discussed. From the target specification, to the finished blueprints.

     

    The process started with the establishment of a target specification, followed by a phase of concept development containing both creative and stringent methods. After these concepts had been evaluated and culled through structured methods a final concept was selected. This concept was then modeled in Solid Works and technical drawings of the model was made for the blueprint.

     

    The result of the thesis work is a finished blueprint for an insert module that fits an ARCAM S12 EBM machine. This module has lowered the build volume to 110x110xthe build height in millimeters, and has the possibility to synchronize the amount of material dispensed between layers.

  • Skott, Sara
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences. Mid Sweden University.
    Beauregard, Eric
    Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, Canada.
    Darjee, Rajan
    Swinburne University of Technology, Alphington, Australia.
    Martineau, Melissa
    Canadian Police College, Polygraph Training Unit, Ottawa, Canada.
    The consistency of sexual homicide characteristics and typologies across countries: a comparison of Canadian and Scottish sexual homicides2019In: Journal of Sexual Aggression, ISSN 1355-2600, E-ISSN 1742-6545Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Although similar subtypes of sexual homicide have been described crossnationally, no study has directly examined whether two samples from different jurisdictions are comparable. This study therefore aimed to examine whether any substantively meaningful subtypes of sexual homicide cases could be identified in each sample, and if so, whether these subtypes were similar across jurisdictions. Two samples of male sexual homicide offenders were compared: a Scottish sample (n=89) and a Canadian sample (n=150). Subtypes were identified in each sample using LCA, identifying a 3-class solution in each sample. Despite differences between samples on the bivariate level, two very similar subtypes (Controlled-Organized and Diverse) emerged in both samples. Despite differences at the bivariate level, the similarities at the multivariate level indicate similarities in underlying offence pathways which underpin heterogeneity in sexual homicide offenders. The similarities between the subtypes identified suggests potential universality of types of sexual homicides cross-nationally.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-24 13:15 L 111, Sundsvall.
    Nourallah, Mustafa
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Economics, Geography, Law and Tourism.
    A mobile bank application loyalty model: The young bank customer perspective2020Licentiate thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis investigates young bank customer (YBC) perceptions of loyalty in the context of mobile bank applications (MBAs), including loyalty antecedents and the consequences of loyalty. A first study investigates the relationships between cognitive, affective, and conative antecedents, on one hand, and loyalty, on the other. A second study investigates the relationships between usability, responsiveness and reliability, and customer satisfaction, on one hand, and loyalty, on the other. The thesis employs a theoretical framework describing customer loyalty in the MBA context. An electronic questionnaire was sent to 500 YBCs in the Mid Sweden region (146 completed questionnaires were received), and confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling were employed to test and develop a measurement model from the responses. Synthesizing the results of the studies performed suggests a model of MBA loyalty from the YBC perspective. The model indicates that cognitive and usability antecedents are significantly related to customer satisfaction, which in turn is significantly related to attitudinal and behavioural loyalty. Despite some limitations, the thesis has novel implications for theory and practice regarding YBC perceptions of MBAs. 

  • Duan, Jiatong
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Optimization and development of the welding system for fiber-optic duct joints2019Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (Two Years)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
    Abstract [en]

    At present, the fiber optic ducts are connected by a mechanical type of joint. In this method, two ducts cut in the right angle are pushed in from both sides of the

    joint, and takes approximately one second to joint ducts together. The problem with the existing joint technology is that if there is water inside of the joint, it will be damaged when the water freezes into ice, and then may cause leakage. There is a risk of explosion when compressed air to blow the fiber. Thus, a joint protection device (silicone rubber sleeve) was developed to seal the joint for protection utterly. However, this will cause the larger size of the entire joint and limit the number of single-duct joints next to each other in a multi-duct joint. Fiber optic ducts are made of High-Density Polyethylene, which is the best plastic for remelting and can be welded by using the electro-fusion welding method. Based on the thermoplasticity of this material, this thesis developed a plastic joint with a built-in conductive metal wire inside. The applied voltage will heat the wire, then remelt the duct surfaces to weld them together through the joint. The welding system uses a portable battery operating system, so there is no need to connect it to the grid. To prevent the battery

    from being damaged by supplying too much current, a capacitor bank is used to store high energy for the preheating joints. The system uses a microcontroller to control and monitor current and voltage to ensure uniform heating of the metal wire.

    Theemphasisof this thesis isplacedon the implementation of basic experiments to run the welding system. Multiple welding experiments show that the welding system can manually set parameters to control the welding current of different joints, thereby ensuring the welding quality. Using a 2.5Ω joint to weld ducts will approximately consume 120J from the battery, so a fully charged 42V, 4.4AH rechargeable battery can perform almost 5600 times of welding. The suitable range of joint resistance will decrease as the required energy consumption increases/ the welding time decreases.

  • Akram, Shazad
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Bertilsson, Kent
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    Sidén, Johan
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Electronics Design.
    LTspice electro-thermal model of joule heating in high density polyethylene optical fiber microducts2019In: Electronics (Switzerland), ISSN 2079-9292, Vol. 8, no 12, article id 1453Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    At present, optical fiber microducts are joined together by mechanical type joints. Mechanical joints are bulky, require more space in multiple duct installations, and have poor water sealing capability. Optical fiber microducts are made of high-density polyethylene which is considered best for welding by remelting. Mechanical joints can be replaced with welded joints if the outer surface layer of the optical fiber microduct is remelted within one second and without thermal damage to the inner surface of the optical fiber duct. To fulfill these requirements, an electro-thermal model of Joule heat generation using a copper coil and heat propagation inside different layers of optical fiber microducts was developed and validated. The electro-thermal model is based on electro-thermal analogy that uses the electrical equivalent to thermal parameters. Depending upon the geometric shape and material properties of the high-density polyethylene, low-density polyethylene, and copper coil, the thermal resistance and thermal capacitance values were calculated and connected to the Cauer RC-ladder configuration. The power input to Joule heating coil and thermal convection resistance to surrounding air were also calculated and modelled. The calculated thermal model was then simulated in LTspice, and real measurements with 50 µm K-type thermocouples were conducted to check the validity of the model. Due to the non-linear transient thermal behavior of polyethylene and variations in the convection resistance values, the calculated thermal model was then optimized for best curve fitting. Optimizations were conducted for convection resistance and the power input model only. The calculated thermal parameters of the polyethylene layers were kept intact to preserve the thermal model to physical structure relationship. Simulation of the optimized electro-thermal model and actual measurements showed to be in good agreement. 

  • Kunz, Philipp
    et al.
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Zinner, Christoph
    University of Applied Sciences for Police and Administration of Hesse, Wiesbaden, Germany.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences. Karolinska Institute, Stockholm.
    Sperlich, Billy
    University of Würzburg, Würzburg, Germany.
    Intra- and Post-match Time-Course of Indicators Related to Perceived and Performance Fatigability and Recovery in Elite Youth Soccer Players2019In: Frontiers in Physiology, ISSN 1664-042X, E-ISSN 1664-042X, Vol. 10, article id 1383Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Purpose: Our aims were to examine (i) the internal load during simulated soccer match-play by elite youth players; and (ii) the time-course of subsequent recovery from perceived and performance fatigability. Methods: Eleven male youth players (16 ± 1 years, 178 ± 7 cm, 67 ± 7 kg) participated in a 2 × 40-min simulated soccer match, completing 30 rounds (160 s each) with every round including multidirectional and linear sprinting (LS20m), jumping (CMJ) and running at different intensities. During each round, LS20m, CMJ, agility, heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), energy expenditure (EE), substrate utilization and perceived exertion RPE were assessed. In addition, the blood level of lactate (Lac) was obtained after each of the five rounds. Creatine kinase (CK) concentration, maximal voluntary isometric knee extension and flexion, CMJ, number of skippings in 30 s, and subjective ratings on the Acute Recovery and Stress Scale (ARSS) were examined before and immediately, 24 and 48 h after the simulation. Results: During the game %HRpeak (p < 0.05, d = 1.08), %VO2peak (p < 0.05; d = 0.68), Lac (p < 0.05, d = 2.59), RPEtotal (p < 0.05, d = 4.59), and RPElegs (p < 0.05, d = 4.45) all increased with time during both halves (all p < 0.05). Agility improved (p < 0.05, d = 0.70) over the time-course of the game, with no changes in LS20m (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.34) or CMJ (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.27). EE was similar during both halves (528 ± 58 vs. 514 ± 61 kcal; p = 0.60; d = 0.23), with 62% (second half: 65%) carbohydrate, 9% (9%) protein and 26% (27%) fat utilization. With respect to recovery, maximal voluntary knee extension (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.50) and flexion force (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.19), CMJ (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.13), number of ground contacts (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.57) and average contact time (p ≥ 0.05, d = 0.39) during 30-s of skipping remained unaltered 24 and 48 h after the game. Most ARSS dimensions of load (p < 0.05, d = 3.79) and recovery (p < 0.05, d = 3.22) returned to baseline levels after 24 h of recovery. Relative to baseline values, CK was elevated immediately and 24 h after (p < 0.05, d = 2.03) and normalized 48 h later. Conclusion: In youth soccer players the simulated match evoked considerable circulatory, metabolic and perceptual load, with an EE of 1042 ± 118 kcal. Among the indicators of perceived and performance fatigability examined, the level of CK and certain subjective ratings differed considerably immediately following or 24–48 h after a 2 × 40-min simulated soccer match in comparison to baseline. Accordingly, monitoring these variables may assist coaches in assessing a U17 player’s perceived and performance fatigability in connection with scheduling training following a soccer match. 

  • Bicer, Roza
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Gender Representation in Contemporary American English Newspapers and Magazines.: A Study on Collocating Adjectives of ‘Man’ and ‘Woman’.2014Independent thesis Advanced level (degree of Master (One Year)), 20 credits / 30 HE creditsStudent thesis
  • Hildingsson, Ingegerd
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences. Uppsala University, Uppsala.
    Lindgren, Helena
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Karlström, Annika
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Nursing Sciences.
    Christensson, Kyllike
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Bäck, Lena
    Mudokwenyu–Rawdon, Christina
    White Ribbon Alliance Zimbabwe, Harare, Zimbabwe.
    Maimbolwa, Margaret C.
    University of Zambia, Lusaka, Zambia.
    Laisser, Rose Mjawa
    Catholic University of Health and Allied Science, Mwanza, Tanzania.
    Omoni, Grace
    University of Nairobi, Nairobi, Kenya.
    Chimwaza, Angela
    University of Malawi, Lilongwe, Malawi.
    Mwebaza, Enid
    LAMRN, Kampala, Uganda.
    Kiruja, Jonah
    Hargeisa University, Hargeisa, Somalia; Dalarna University, Falun.
    Sharma, Bharati
    Indian Institute of Public Health, Gandhinagar, India.
    African midwifery students’ self-assessed confidence in antenatal care: a multi-country study2019In: Global Health Action, ISSN 1654-9716, E-ISSN 1654-9880, Vol. 12, no 1, article id 1689721Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Background: Evidence-based antenatal care is one cornerstone in Safe Motherhood and educated and confident midwives remain to be optimal caregivers in Africa. Confidence in antenatal midwifery skills is important and could differ depending on the provision of education among the training institutions across Africa. Objective: The aim of the study was to describe and compare midwifery students’ confidence in basic antenatal skills, in relation to age, sex, program type and level of program. Methods: A survey in seven sub-Saharan African countries was conducted. Enrolled midwifery students from selected midwifery institutions in each country presented selfreported data on confidence to provide antenatal care. Data were collected using a selfadministered questionnaire. The questionnaire consisted of 22 antenatal skills based on the competency framework from the International Confederation of Midwives. The skills were grouped into three domains; Identify fetal and maternal risk factors and educate parents; Manage and document emergent complications and Physical assessment and nutrition. Results: In total, 1407 midwifery students from seven Sub-Saharan countries responded. Almost one third (25-32%) of the students reported high levels of confidence in all three domains. Direct entry programs were associated with higher levels of confidence in all three domains, compared to post-nursing and double degree programs. Students enrolled at education with diploma level presented with high levels of confidence in two out of three domains. Conclusions: A significant proportion of student midwives rated themselves low on confidence to provide ANC. Midwifery students enrolled in direct entry programs reported higher levels of confidence in all domains. It is important that local governments develop education standards, based on recommendations from the International Confederation of midwives. Further research is needed for the evaluation of actual competence.

  • Martin-Rincon, M.
    et al.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Pérez-López, A.
    University of Alcalá, Madrid, Spain.
    Morales-Alamo, D.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Perez-Suarez, I.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    de Pablos-Velasco, P.
    Hospital Universitario de Gran Canaria Doctor Negrín, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Perez-Valera, M.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Perez-Regalado, S.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Martinez-Canton, M.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Gelabert-Rebato, M.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Juan-Habib, J. W.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain.
    Holmberg, Hans-Christer
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Calbet, J. A. L.
    University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Canary Islands, Spain; The University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada; The Norwegian School of Sport Sciences, Oslo, Norway.
    Exercise mitigates the loss of muscle mass by attenuating the activation of autophagy during severe energy deficit2019In: Nutrients, ISSN 2072-6643, E-ISSN 2072-6643, Vol. 11, no 11, article id 2824Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The loss of skeletal muscle mass with energy deficit is thought to be due to protein breakdown by the autophagy-lysosome and the ubiquitin-proteasome systems. We studied the main signaling pathways through which exercise can attenuate the loss of muscle mass during severe energy deficit (5500 kcal/day). Overweight men followed four days of caloric restriction (3.2 kcal/kg body weight day) and prolonged exercise (45 min of one-arm cranking and 8 h walking/day), and three days of control diet and restricted exercise, with an intra-subject design including biopsies from muscles submitted to distinct exercise volumes. Gene expression and signaling data indicate that the main catabolic pathway activated during severe energy deficit in skeletal muscle is the autophagy-lysosome pathway, without apparent activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. Markers of autophagy induction and flux were reduced by exercise primarily in the muscle submitted to an exceptional exercise volume. Changes in signaling are associated with those in circulating cortisol, testosterone, cortisol/testosterone ratio, insulin, BCAA, and leucine. We conclude that exercise mitigates the loss of muscle mass by attenuating autophagy activation, blunting the phosphorylation of AMPK/ULK1/Beclin1, and leading to p62/SQSTM1 accumulation. This includes the possibility of inhibiting autophagy as a mechanism to counteract muscle loss in humans under severe energy deficit. 

  • Rosén, Jörgen
    et al.
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Kastrati, Granit
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm.
    Reppling, Aksel
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Bergkvist, Klas
    Uppsala universitet, Uppsala.
    Åhs, Fredrik
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    The effect of immersive virtual reality on proximal and conditioned threat2019In: Scientific Reports, ISSN 2045-2322, E-ISSN 2045-2322, Vol. 9, no 1, article id 17407Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Virtual reality lets the user be immersed in a 3-dimensional environment, which can enhance certain emotional responses to stimuli relative to experiencing them on a flat computer screen. We here tested whether displaying two different types of threats in immersive virtual reality enhanced threat related autonomic responses measured by skin conductance responses (SCRs). We studied innate and learned threat responses because these types of threats have been shown to depend on different neural circuits in animals. Therefore, it is possible that immersive virtual reality may modulate one of these threats but not the other. Innate threat responses were provoked by the sudden appearance of characters at proximal egocentric distance, which were compared to the sudden appearance of distant characters (proximal threat). Learned threat responses were studied by conditioning two of the characters to an electric shock (conditioned threat) and contrasting SCRs to these characters with SCRs to two other characters that were never paired with shock. We found that displaying stimuli in immersive virtual reality enhanced proximal threat responses but not conditioned threat responses. Findings show that immersive virtual reality can enhance an innate type of threat responses without affecting a learned threat response, suggesting that separate neural pathways serve these threat responses. 

  • Abdullah, Abu Sayeed Md.
    et al.
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Dalal, Koustuv
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Halim, Abdul
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Rahman, A. K. M. Fazlur
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh.
    Biswas, Animesh
    Centre for Injury Prevention and Research Bangladesh (CIPRB), Dhaka, Bangladesh; Örebro University, Örebro.
    Effects of climate change and maternal morality: Perspective from case studies in the rural area of Bangladesh2019In: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, ISSN 1661-7827, E-ISSN 1660-4601, Vol. 16, no 23, article id 4594Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    This study explored the community perception of maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster (flood), and the practice of maternal complications during natural disaster among the rural population in Bangladesh. It also explored the challenges faced by the community for providing healthcare and referring the pregnant women experiencing complications during flood disaster. Three focus group discussions (FGDs) and eight in-depth interviews (IDIs) were conducted in the marginalized rural communities in the flood-prone Khaliajhuri sub-district, Netrakona district, Bangladesh. Flood is one of the major risk factors for influencing maternal death. Pregnant women seriously suffer from maternal complications, lack of antenatal checkup, and lack of doctors during flooding. During the time of delivery, it is difficult to find a skilled attendant, and referring the patient with delivery complications to the healthcare facility. Boats are the only mode of transport. The majority of maternal deaths occur on the boats during transfer from the community to the hospital. Rural people feel that the maternal deaths influenced by natural disaster are natural phenomena. Pre-preparation is needed to support pregnant women during disasters. There is unawareness of maternal health, related care, and complications during disasters among local health service providers and volunteers. 

  • Afewerki, Samson
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Córdova, Armando
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Natural Sciences.
    Enamine/Transition Metal Combined Catalysis: Catalytic Transformations Involving Organometallic Electrophilic Intermediates2019In: Topics in Current Chemistry, ISSN 2365-0869, Vol. 377, no 6, article id 38Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    The concept of merging enamine activation catalysis with transition metal catalysis is an important strategy, which allows for selective chemical transformations not accessible without this combination. The amine catalyst activates the carbonyl compounds through the formation of a reactive nucleophilic enamine intermediate and, in parallel, the transition metal activates a wide range of functionalities such as allylic substrates through the formation of reactive electrophilic π-allyl-metal complex. Since the first report of this strategy in 2006, considerable effort has been devoted to the successful advancement of this technology. In this chapter, these findings are highlighted and discussed. 

  • Berggren, Caroline
    et al.
    Göteborgs universitet, Göteborg.
    Olofsson, Anders
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    A societal perspective on self-employment–Sweden as an example2019In: Studies in Higher Education, ISSN 0307-5079, E-ISSN 1470-174XArticle in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    European Union policies emphasise the importance of entrepreneurship and self-employment to maintain economic growth, a solution influenced by the USA and research from schools of business. There are expectations of higher education graduates that they are innovative, will start businesses and will employ others. However, transferring a solution from one country to another may not be as simple as that. This study questions the recommendations made in EU policies which mainly focus on how to support individuals to become self-employed. Extensive data from the Swedish population registry of approximately 90,000 tertiary-educated people, all born in the mid-1970s, is used to analyse the extent to which this group became self-employed. Results show that societal and cultural differences need to be considered when creating such policies.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 10:30 O102, Sundsvall
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some Approaches to Eco-Friendly Products from Natural Matrices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the onset of the industrial and chemical revolution, humans have caused immense damages to the surrounding flora and fauna. Effective methods for wood protection measures proved to be toxic; fossil fuels contribute to global warming and pesticides can be detected in the air, water, and soil. It is abundantly clear that efforts to find eco-friendly products are needed, while simultaneously providing the necessary incentives for sustainable worldwide development. Using renewable resources play a critical role in this shift towards circular economies.

    Wood has long been used as a renewable resource in high demand, but its susceptibility to attack by wood-decaying fungi mean that most European woods need to be protected against these fungi before outdoor use. We showed that fractionating turpentine, a pulp and paper mill by-product, increased antifungal efficacy by concentrating bioactive oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Based on this result, recombinations of the fractions were shown to exhibit synergistic effects that enable a more efficient product utilisation. In addition, this approach enabled putative identifications of previously unknown Picea abies turpentine constituents present at low levels.

    For a carbon-neutral society, production of biofuels using oleaginous yeast to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fuel has been hailed as a next-generation source of bioenergy. However, lignocellulose biofuel production by microorganisms is not straightforward and one challenge is the formation of microbe-toxic monomers, such as vanillin, during lignin degradation. The oleaginous yeast Cystobasidium laryngis and other potential oil-producing yeasts were screened for their viability and vanillin biotransformation capabilities. To this end, a mass chromatographic peak extraction tool termed TMATE was developed. Vanillyl alcohol was found to be the main product following vanillin degradation.

    The detrimental health and ecological effects of pesticides highlight the urgency for alternative crop protection measures, such as biological insect control and semiochemicals. In this regard, we present an essential step towards understanding the varied chemical ecology of microbe-insect interactions. Our methodology and findings provide cues with high information value that can be used to develop well-informed and potentially sustainable pest management regimes by, for example, the push-pull methodology using live yeasts.

  • Englund, Oskar
    et al.
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Ecotechnology and Suistainable Building Engineering.
    Börjesson, Pål
    Lund University.
    Berndes, Göran
    Chalmers University of Technology.
    Scarlat, Nicolae
    European Commission. Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Dallemand, Jean-Francois
    European Commission. Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Grizzetti, Bruna
    European Commission. Joint Research Centre (JRC), Ispra, Italy.
    Dimitriou, Ioannis
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences.
    Mola-Yudego, Blas
    Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences / University of Eastern Finland, Joensuu.
    Fahl, Fernando
    GFT Italia S.r.l., Milano, Italy.
    Beneficial land use change: Strategic expansion of new biomass plantations can reduce environmental impacts from EU agriculture2020In: Global Environmental Change, ISSN 0959-3780, E-ISSN 1872-9495, Vol. 60, article id 101990Article in journal (Refereed)
    Abstract [en]

    Society faces the double challenge of increasing biomass production to meet the future demands for food, materials and bioenergy, while addressing negative impacts of current (and future) land use. In the discourse, land use change (LUC) has often been considered as negative, referring to impacts of deforestation and expansion of biomass plantations. However, strategic establishment of suitable perennial production systems in agricultural landscapes can mitigate environmental impacts of current crop production, while providing biomass for the bioeconomy. Here, we explore the potential for such “beneficial LUC” in EU28. First, we map and quantify the degree of accumulated soil organic carbon losses, soil loss by wind and water erosion, nitrogen emissions to water, and recurring floods, in ∼81.000 individual landscapes in EU28. We then estimate the effectiveness in mitigating these impacts through establishment of perennial plants, in each landscape. The results indicate that there is a substantial potential for effective impact mitigation. Depending on criteria selection, 10–46% of the land used for annual crop production in EU28 is located in landscapes that could be considered priority areas for beneficial LUC. These areas are scattered all over Europe, but there are notable “hot-spots” where priority areas are concentrated, e.g., large parts of Denmark, western UK, The Po valley in Italy, and the Danube basin. While some policy developments support beneficial LUC, implementation could benefit from attempts to realize synergies between different Sustainable Development Goals, e.g., “Zero hunger”, “Clean water and sanitation”, “Affordable and Clean Energy”, “Climate Action”, and “Life on Land”.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-24 10:00 F234, Östersund
    Hoppstadius, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Mäns våld mot kvinnor: Diskurser och kunskap i det sociala arbetets praktik2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines knowledge and discourses guiding social services’ work related to male violence against women. The focus of the research questions is on discourses on male violence against women, social workers’ knowledge and understandings of these issues. The thesis has a feminist and an intersectional perspective and is based on two studies. The empirical data in the first study consists of five study guides published by the National Board of Health and Welfare. Carol Bacchi's policy approach What’s the Problem Represented to Be? and Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis were used in the qualitative analysis. The second study consists of survey data obtained from social workers occupied in social services in three Swedish municipalities. The thesis reveals three primary results. First, male violence is framed in gender-neutral terms, and the violence is described as a problem in relationships and/or as family violence. Second, neither the study guides nor the social workers pay particular attention to structural causes, and do not problematise male superiority. Third, the knowledge and discourses on men’s violence against women centre around individual needs and causes of violence. In particular, they focus on the needs of the groups of women that the Government considers particularly vulnerable to violence. The latter leads to women being collectivized and men's responsibility for the violence, in particular Swedish men, and the link between violence, equality and other social structures, being neglected. Professional experience with cases where violence occurs and education in the area are factors that social workers consider contribute to increased knowledge. Despite this, respondents with long working experience, high education and continuing education state that they lack knowledge of men's violence against women. Although many social workers indicated that they lack knowledge, the result revealed that they only use knowledge-enhancing guidelines to a limited extent. This thesis contributes with knowledge of the importance of language use for how we understand men's violence against women. The results can be used as a basis for questioning and challenging prevailing norms and perceptions in society about men's violence against women.

  • Liliequist, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Olovsdotter Lööv, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Wimark, Thomas
    Stockholms universitet.
    Ett forskarsamtal om queer och *bygd2019In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 101-116Article in journal (Other academic)
  • Liliequist, Evelina
    et al.
    Umeå universitet.
    Olovsdotter Lööv, Anna
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Humanities and Social Sciences.
    Queer nordisk *bygd2019In: Lambda Nordica: Tidskrift om homosexualitet, ISSN 1100-2573, Vol. 24, no 1, p. 11-18Article in journal (Other academic)
    Abstract [sv]

    Gästredaktörerna Evelina Liliequist och Anna Olovsdotter Löövs förord till tidskriften Lambda Nordicas temanummer Queer nordisk *bygd.