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  • Public defence: 2020-01-24 10:00 F234, Östersund
    Hoppstadius, Helena
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Psychology and Social Work.
    Mäns våld mot kvinnor: Diskurser och kunskap i det sociala arbetets praktik2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis examines knowledge and discourses guiding social services’ work related to male violence against women. The focus of the research questions is on discourses on male violence against women, social workers’ knowledge and understandings of these issues. The thesis has a feminist and an intersectional perspective and is based on two studies. The empirical data in the first study consists of five study guides published by the National Board of Health and Welfare. Carol Bacchi's policy approach What’s the Problem Represented to Be? and Norman Fairclough's Critical Discourse Analysis were used in the qualitative analysis. The second study consists of survey data obtained from social workers occupied in social services in three Swedish municipalities. The thesis reveals three primary results. First, male violence is framed in gender-neutral terms, and the violence is described as a problem in relationships and/or as family violence. Second, neither the study guides nor the social workers pay particular attention to structural causes, and do not problematise male superiority. Third, the knowledge and discourses on men’s violence against women centre around individual needs and causes of violence. In particular, they focus on the needs of the groups of women that the Government considers particularly vulnerable to violence. The latter leads to women being collectivized and men's responsibility for the violence, in particular Swedish men, and the link between violence, equality and other social structures, being neglected. Professional experience with cases where violence occurs and education in the area are factors that social workers consider contribute to increased knowledge. Despite this, respondents with long working experience, high education and continuing education state that they lack knowledge of men's violence against women. Although many social workers indicated that they lack knowledge, the result revealed that they only use knowledge-enhancing guidelines to a limited extent. This thesis contributes with knowledge of the importance of language use for how we understand men's violence against women. The results can be used as a basis for questioning and challenging prevailing norms and perceptions in society about men's violence against women.

  • Public defence: 2020-01-31 10:30 O102, Sundsvall
    Ljunggren, Joel
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Chemical Engineering.
    Some Approaches to Eco-Friendly Products from Natural Matrices2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Since the onset of the industrial and chemical revolution, humans have caused immense damages to the surrounding flora and fauna. Effective methods for wood protection measures proved to be toxic; fossil fuels contribute to global warming and pesticides can be detected in the air, water, and soil. It is abundantly clear that efforts to find eco-friendly products are needed, while simultaneously providing the necessary incentives for sustainable worldwide development. Using renewable resources play a critical role in this shift towards circular economies.

    Wood has long been used as a renewable resource in high demand, but its susceptibility to attack by wood-decaying fungi mean that most European woods need to be protected against these fungi before outdoor use. We showed that fractionating turpentine, a pulp and paper mill by-product, increased antifungal efficacy by concentrating bioactive oxygenated sesquiterpenes. Based on this result, recombinations of the fractions were shown to exhibit synergistic effects that enable a more efficient product utilisation. In addition, this approach enabled putative identifications of previously unknown Picea abies turpentine constituents present at low levels.

    For a carbon-neutral society, production of biofuels using oleaginous yeast to convert lignocellulosic biomass into fuel has been hailed as a next-generation source of bioenergy. However, lignocellulose biofuel production by microorganisms is not straightforward and one challenge is the formation of microbe-toxic monomers, such as vanillin, during lignin degradation. The oleaginous yeast Cystobasidium laryngis and other potential oil-producing yeasts were screened for their viability and vanillin biotransformation capabilities. To this end, a mass chromatographic peak extraction tool termed TMATE was developed. Vanillyl alcohol was found to be the main product following vanillin degradation.

    The detrimental health and ecological effects of pesticides highlight the urgency for alternative crop protection measures, such as biological insect control and semiochemicals. In this regard, we present an essential step towards understanding the varied chemical ecology of microbe-insect interactions. Our methodology and findings provide cues with high information value that can be used to develop well-informed and potentially sustainable pest management regimes by, for example, the push-pull methodology using live yeasts.