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  • Public defence: 2020-03-06 10:30 C312, Sundsvall
    Björk, Annette
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Health Sciences.
    Stödjande gemenskap: Utveckling och utvärdering av en intervention för livsstilsförändring bland vuxna med adhd2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    The entire project revolves around a lifestyle intervention that has been developed, implemented and evaluated. The intervention included adults with ADHD and comorbid mental illness. ADHD (Attention Deficiency Hyperactive Disorder) is a neuropsychiatric diagnosis/disability characterized by attention problems, impulsivity and hyperactivity and can affect education, working life, social relationships and form the basis for impaired lifestyle habits. Previous research shows shortened life expectancy in adults with ADHD, which related to deteriorating lifestyle habits. In the long run, the disability may be the basis for impaired living conditions and lifestyle habits and contribute to the individual's well-being and quality of life. In the field of health sciences, it is important to alleviate suffering, promote health and prevent ill health. Thus, the overall aim of this dissertation is to analyze living conditions among people with ADHD and mental illness, as well as to develop and evaluate a lifestyle intervention for this group.

    The PhD project includes four sub-studies: Study I, a qualitative interview study (n = 20) of adults with ADHD and mental illness, aimed at describing experiences of everyday suffering in this group. The analysis showed experiences of both suffering and well-being in living with ADHD. The focus of the suffering was the experience of loneliness, both regarding relationships in life, relationships in health care, but also to ADHD diagnosis and mental illness. Well-being was experienced when diagnosed with ADHD but also in relation to supportive social relationships. Study II, a quantitative descriptive and comparative study, aimed to gain more knowledge about people withADHD and their health situation. One group of people with ADHD (n = 48)was compared to the normal population without ADHD (n = 42). The results showed poorer health outcomes regarding self-perceived general health and the group with ADHD was less weekly physical active but nevertheless had no decreased aerobic fitness compared to the normal population. Study III, aquantitative descriptive study (n = 25), aimed to examine the degree of acceptance of the intervention and its impact on lifestyle habits, health and well-being, MBI and physical fitness. The tests before and after completing intervention showed small positive effects regarding weekly physical activity, quality of life and general- and mental health. Study IV, a qualitative study(n = 15), with adults with ADHD and comorbid mental illness aimed to investigate the experience of participating in a nurse-led lifestyle intervention. The analysis, based on material from interviews, showed that the participants perceived the intervention as supportive, which is related to the interpersonal relationships that arose in the intervention. Through supportive kindship with the other participants in the intervention, lifestyle habits and health experience were improved.

    The conclusion of the thesis is that the lifestyle intervention, based on interpersonal relationships and supported kindship, can be useful for making lifestyle changes in adults with ADHD and mental illness. Such support is important because adults with ADHD and mental illness experience a lack of and a desire for social support and has an increased risk of deteriorating health and unhealthy lifestyles. However, future adjustments to the content of the intervention must be made to improve the lifestyle intervention towards more sustainable lifestyle changes. Above all, the lifestyle intervention ought to be continuous. It is also of great importance for further research that insider perspective is used, that is, investigate the professionals' experiences regarding the intervention.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-16 13:00 Q 221, Östersund
    Danielsson, Tatiana
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Science, Technology and Media, Department of Mathematics and Science Education.
    Further Investigations of Convergence Results for Homogenization Problems with Various Combinations of Scales2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    This thesis is based on six papers. We study the homogenization of selected parabolic problems with one or more microscopic scales in space and time, respectively. The approaches are prepared by means of certain methods, like two-scale convergence, multiscale convergence and also the evolution setting of multiscale convergence and very weak multiscale convergence. Paper I treats a linear parabolic homogenization problem with rapid spatial and temporal oscillations in perforated domains. Suitable results of two-scale convergence type are established. Paper II deals with further development of compactness results which can be used in the homogenization procedure engaging a certain limit condition. The homogenization procedure deals with a parabolic problem with a certain matching between a fast spatial and a fast temporal scale and a coefficient passing to zero that the time derivative is multiplied with. Papers III and IV are further generalizations of Paper II and investigate homogenization problems with different types of matching between the microscopic scales. Papers III and IV deal with one and two rapid scales in both space and time respectively. Paper V treats the nonlinearity of monotone parabolic problems with an arbitrary number of spatial and temporal scales by applying the perturbed test functions method together with multiscale convergence and very weak multiscale convergence adapted to the evolution setting. In Paper VI we discuss the relation between two-scale convergence and the unfolding method and potential extensions of existing results. The papers above are summarized in Chapter 4. Chapter 1 gives a brief introduction to the topic and Chapters 2 and 3 are surveys over some important previous results.

  • Public defence: 2020-03-20 10:00 E409, Sundsvall
    Dahlström, Helene
    Mid Sweden University, Faculty of Human Sciences, Department of Education.
    Förutsättningar för elevers textskapande: En studie om digitala resurser, multimodalitet och elevers handlingsmöjligheter2020Doctoral thesis, comprehensive summary (Other academic)
    Abstract [en]

    Modern society is characterised by change. Humans’ ways of communicating have changed in many ways due to society’s social, linguistic, cultural and textual plurality. The digitalisation of society has contributed considerably to the changed conditions for communication and representation that have emerged. Given these new conditions, it is crucial to increase the body of knowledge about how digital resources shape possibilities for students’ participation in text activities in school. The purpose of this thesis was to increase the understanding about the role of digital resources for middle school students' meaning-making as they create text in school. The theoretical point of departures includes multimodal social semiotics and multiliteracies. The participants included 111 Swedish middle school students. A multiple methods design was used in this thesis and included multimodal text analysis, interviews, a survey and multimodal analysis of video observations. Four studies were conducted. Overall, the results of the thesis indicated that the use of digital resources enabled students to create texts on more equal terms an dactively participate in writing activities. When designing texts with access to multiple modes, students used digital resources and various modes in diverse ways. Some students chose to use only writing, whereas others utilised the whole range of available resources. Students appeared to choose modes based on previous experiences and modal preferences. The availability of multiple modes during the digital text design process could mean that some students’ text design experiences in the home environment were recognised in the school context. For a few students, the allowances offered by digital and modal resources enabled them to actually create stories, which was rather difficult when using the mode of writing alone. An analysis of the content of students’ texts indicated that many students were influenced by the popular culture texts that they engaged with in informal settings. The pedagogical implications for literacy practices include and recognising students’ experiences from engaging with texts in informal settings, whether popular or not, in the classroom environment to connect students’ life and classroom experiences. This form of education is built on plurality and students’ resources.